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MC 875

Joost-Gaugier, Christiane L. Papers of Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier, 1969-1999 (inclusive), 1973-1977 (bulk): A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University


Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

© President and Fellows of Harvard College

Processing of this collection was made possible by gifts from the Zetlin Sisters Fund and the Jane Rainie Opel '50 Fund.

Descriptive Summary

Location: Collection stored off site: researchers must request access 36 hours before use.
Call No.: MC 875
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Joost-Gaugier, Christiane L.
Title: Papers of Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier, 1969-1999 (inclusive), 1973-1977 (bulk)
Date(s): 1969-1999
Date(s): 1973-1977
Quantity: 2.7 linear feet (6 + 1/2 file boxes)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Correspondence, memoranda, depositions, and trial transcripts from the sex discrimination class action suit, EEOC v. Tufts Institute of Learning.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Accession numbers: D-25, 95-M183, 2001-M150, 2016-M47
The papers of Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier were given to the Schlesinger Library by Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission data analyst Elizabeth Dunn between October 1991 and March 2016.

Processing Information:

Processed: September 2016
By: Cat Lea Holbrook, with assistance from Margaret Dalton.

Access Restrictions:

Access. Collection is open to research. Files containing information on Joost-Gaugier's settlement with Tufts University (#4.8-4.9) are closed until Joost-Gaugier's death.

Conditions Governing Use:

Copyright. Copyright in the papers created by Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.

Preferred Citation:

Christiane L. Joost-Gaugier Papers, 1969-1999; item description, dates. MC 875, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.


Christiane Joost-Gaugier was born in Sainte-Maxime, France, to Louis and Agnes Gaugier in 1934. During the 1930s, the Gaugier family immigrated to South Orange, New Jersey. Joost-Gaugier studied art history at Radcliffe College (A.B. 1955, A.M. 1959) and Harvard University (Ph.D. 1973). During the early 1960s, Joost-Gaugier was briefly married to Anthony Sharkey; their marriage ended in divorce.
In 1956, Joost-Gaugier attended the University of Munich as a Fulbright Scholar. In 1961, Joost-Gaugier was hired as Assistant Professor of Art History at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. During her early career, Joost-Gaugier taught a range of art history courses, including medieval art survey, ancient art survey, Baroque painting, and seminars on Giotto problems, and contemporary art criticism during the Italian Renaissance of the 16th century. In 1968, she married Robert Joost; they had two daughters, Leonarda and Nathalie Joost. Christiane and Robert Joost's marriage ended in divorce in 1969.
Joost-Gaugier was hired by Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, in 1967 as a part-time lecturer in the Fine Arts Department. She became a full-time assistant professor in 1969. In 1972, Joost-Gaugier was informed by Tufts University that her contract would not be extended past the 1972-1973 academic year. In 1972, Joost-Gaugier brought her concerns of sex discrimination to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), believing that Tufts University was violating Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. After an investigation, the EEOC formally charged Tufts University with sex discrimination. This case would become the EEOC's first class action suit that charged a university with sex discrimination.
Since 1975, Joost-Gaugier has held faculty appointments at New Mexico State University (1975-1983), the University of New Mexico (1985-2000), and has taught as an independent scholar at George Washington University, Georgetown University, and the University of Maryland, College Park. She has written several books, including Raphael's Stanza della Segnatura: Meaning and Invention; Measuring Heaven: Pythagoras and His Influence on Thought and Art in Antiquity and the Middle Ages; and Italian Renaissance Art: Understanding Its Meaning.
In 2005, Joost-Gaugier was awarded an honorary Phi Beta Kappa from Harvard University for her academic achievements.


In 1972, Joost-Gaugier was informed by Tufts University that her contract would not be extended past the 1972-1973 academic year. Joost-Gaugier sought to prove that the discrimination against her consisted of: a lower salary than male colleagues, the denial of secretarial help, not being consulted on the graduate admissions to the Fine Arts Department, harassment and intimidation from the chair of the Fine Arts department, and that she was discharged in retaliation for her public opposition to the discriminatory conditions of her employment in the Fine Arts department. Barbara Ehrlich White, the only other female assistant professor in the Fine Arts department, was also informed in 1972 that she would not receive tenure, would not be promoted to associate professor, and her contract would not be renewed. White also claimed that she had been discriminated against by receiving a lower salary than male colleagues, that she was treated differently from men in the assignments of the department duties and privileges, was refused a student helper, that she was harassed and intimidated, and that she had been denied tenure.
After receiving complaints against the Fine Arts department chair Ivan Galantic from Joost-Gaugier, Barbara Ehrlich White, and their colleague Keith Moxey, Tufts University began an investigation into the administration of the Fine Arts department. The Faculty Personnel Committee, which conducted the investigation, maintained that Joost-Gaugier's contract was not renewed because her field of art history overlapped with Galantic's, her progress towards completion of her Ph.D. was too slow, and that Galantic wished to revamp the program and curriculum. Ivan Galantic stepped down as the chair of the fine arts department in 1972, and was temporarily replaced by John Zarker.
Believing that Tufts University was violating Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by discriminating against women in regards to hiring, job classification, tenure, maternity leave, and intimidation, Joost-Gaugier contacted the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The EEOC submitted Joost-Gaugier's charge to the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination for a 60-day deferral period. At the end of the 60-day deferral, the EEOC formally charged Tufts University with violating Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1973, Joost-Gaugier assented to a motion that consolidated her suit with Barbara Ehrlich White's separate suit.
Pre-trial hearings began in August 1973. A preliminary injunction was filed in 1975 to reinstate both women to their positions at Tufts University. Judge Frank Murray ruled that Barbara Ehrlich White would be re-instated by Tufts University as an assistant professor. Joost-Gaugier's preliminary injunction was denied. The trial, which began on December 1, 1975, and ended on June 21, 1977, encompassed 11 days in two years. After the last day of testimony, Judge Murray did not render a decision. In July 1977, Judge Murray retired from active service, and retained "senior" status, which allowed him to hear a reduced number of cases when he wished.
During the next few years, Joost-Gaugier's lawyers, and those of the EEOC, filed letters and memoranda inquiring about the status of the case. In 1979, Judge Murray scheduled a conference of counsel, where he explained that he had questions regarding the statistical evidence concerning faculty salaries that had been presented by both sides during the trial. By 1986, the class action suit had still not been settled, and Joost-Gaugier's lawyers filed a motion for the case to be heard in front of a new judge. Ultimately, Tufts University settled the class action suit with the EEOC, Barbara Ehrlich White, and Christiane Joost-Gaugier in 1986.


This collection documents the first class action suit filed by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) against a university for sex discrimination. These papers were collected by Christiane Joost-Gaugier, and do not contain any personal material. Records include correspondence, memoranda, depositions, transcripts, reports, articles, the final settlement agreement, affidavits, and motions related to the sex discrimination suit against Tufts University. This collection documents the law suit from start to finish with depositions, documents submitted as evidence, transcripts of testimony during the preliminary injunction and the trial, as well as the final settlement agreement. These records also document the harassment and discrimination within the Tufts Fine Arts department, against not only Joost-Gaugier and her colleague Barbara Ehrlich White, but also female students. Joost-Gaugier also felt she was being discriminated against due to her personal life; she was a single mother with two children.
This material includes testimonies from EEOC investigators; research analysts; art historians from other institutions; former fine arts undergraduate and graduate students; administrators and professors from Tufts University; as well as from Christiane Joost-Gaugier and Barbara Ehrlich White. Reports include research that was conducted by outside analysts on the statistical analysis of faculty salaries at Tufts University, as well as a report on the retention of non-Ph.D. faculty at Tufts. Correspondence includes letters of support for Joost-Gaugier from colleagues at other universities. There is some overlap between documents submitted for exhibits at the preliminary injunction and the trial.
Joost-Gaugier's original folder headings were maintained; titles in brackets were created by the archivist. This collection is arranged alphabetically by folder title.

Container List

Additional Index Terms

Actions and defenses--Cases
Case files
College teachers--United States
Legal documents
Sex discrimination against women--Law and legislation--United States--Cases
Sex discrimination against women--United States
Sex discrimination in education--United States
Sex discrimination in employment--Law and legislation--United States
Sexual harassment in education--United States
Sex role in the work environment--United States
Universities and colleges--Law and legislation--United States
Universities and colleges--United States--Faculty
Women--Education (Higher)--United States
Women--Employment--United States
Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--United States--Cases
Women college teachers--United States
Women's rights--United States
Galantic, Ivan
Moxey, Keith P. F., 1943-
Murray, Frank
Radcliffe College--Alumni and alumnae
Tufts University. Department of Art and Art History
Tufts University--Faculty
Tufts University--Trials, litigation, etc.
United States. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission--Trials, litigation, etc.
White, Barbara Ehrlich