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MC 522

National Women's Political Caucus (U.S.). Records of the National Women's Political Caucus, 1970-2006: A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

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Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

© President and Fellows of Harvard College


The records of the National Women's Political Caucus were processed with the generous support of the Mary Mitchell Wood Processing Fund, the Elsie Rodd Fund, the Alice Jeannette Ward Fund, and the National Women's Political Caucus.

Descriptive Summary

Location: Collection stored off site: researchers must request access 36 hours before use.
Call No.: MC 522
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: National Women's Political Caucus (U.S.)
Title: Records of the National Women's Political Caucus, 1970-2006
Date(s): 1970-2006
Quantity: 161.48 linear feet (370 file boxes, 2 half-file boxes, 3 folio boxes, 3 folio+ boxes) plus 9 folio folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 supersize folder, 99 photograph folders, 8 objects)
Quantity: 4.02 Megabytes (194 files)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Records of the National Women's Political Caucus, a national feminist organization with state and local chapters founded in 1971 to increase women's participation in the political process and create a women's political power base to achieve equality for all women by recruiting, training, and supporting pro-choice women candidates for elected and appointed offices at all levels of government, regardless of party affiliation. State and local chapters provide support to candidates running for all levels of office by helping raise money and providing volunteer assistance.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Accession numbers: 91-M55, 91-M109, 91-M118, 91-M128, 91-M133, 91-M140, 91-M159, 91-M201, 91-M220, 92-M262, 92-M216, 93-M188, 94-M24, 94-M56, 94-M94, 94-M117, 97-M120, 98-M159, 99-M103, 2000-M83, 2003-M14, 2005-M134, 2005-M149, 2006-M65, 2009-M109, 2010-M127
The records of the National Women's Political Caucus were given to the Schlesinger Library by the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) beginning in April 1991, and by Wilma Scott Heide in 1980.

Processing Information:

Processed: December 2012
By: Katherine Gray Kraft, Kim Brookes, Johanna Carll, Stacey Flatt, and Jenny Gotwals, with the assistance of Bert Hartry, Katherine Herrlich, Naomi McAnish, and Sarah Courtney.
Updated: February 2014
By: Jenny Gotwals
Updated and electronic files added: April 2017
By: Jenny Gotwals

TERMS OF USE:

Access. Access to all NWPC records is restricted to those with the written permission of the NWPC executive director or president, except that 1) open records, consisting of publications (#361.1-368.16), mailings (and events, #104.9-106.9), clippings (#354.20-360.12), publicity and awards (see press releases, #351.17-352.13), memorabilia (#376.1m-376.12m, 377F+B.1m-377F+B.10m, 378F+B.9m-378F+B.10m, Mem.1-Mem.8), photographs (#PD.1-PD.99), and other documents generally available to the wider NWPC membership, are available for research without restriction, and 2) closed records designated below are closed to research for the length of time indicated, but are available for NWPC administrative use with the written permission of NWPC's executive director or president:
  • Administrative Committee records: closed 50 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Board records: closed 5 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Appointment files: closed 50 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Field reports: closed 50 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Financial records: development files and other records of donations, as well as non-public records concerning candidates' contributors and disbursements, are closed for 50 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Grievances within NWPC: closed 30 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Personnel records, including intern files: closed 80 years from date of most recent document in folder, except that employee may have access to her/his own files with the written permission of the executive director or president.
  • Political Planning Committee: minutes, correspondence, and other related records not widely circulated to NWPC leadership are closed 50 years from date of most recent document in folder.
  • Any other records deemed by the Caucus' Administrative Committee to be confidential, or deemed by library staff to constitute an unwarranted invasion of privacy, shall be closed to research for a period mutually agreed upon by library staff and the NWPC executive director or president.
  • Membership records are temporarily closed pending negotiations between the library and the NWPC.
    For access to electronic records please contact the reference desk.

    Conditions Governing Use:

    Copyright. The Caucus retains its copyright in the records, but authorizes the director of the library to give permission to publish short quotations (250 words or fewer in any one publication). Extensive quotations may be published only with the written permission of the executive director or president of the Caucus. If and when the Caucus ceases to exist, copyright will be transferred to the President and Fellows of Harvard College. Copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns.
    Copying. Open records (as defined above) may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures. Restricted and closed records may be copied only with the written permission of the executive director or president.

    Preferred Citation:

    National Women's Political Caucus Records, 1970-2006; item description, dates. MC 522, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

    Related Material:

    There is related material at the Schlesinger Library; see Audiotape collection of the National Women's Political Caucus, 1977-2000 (T-257); Videotape and motion picture collection of the National Women's Political Caucus, 1981-2003 (Vt-72; MP-29); and National Women's Political Caucus, State and local affiliates newsletter collection, 1971-2002 (Pr-17).

    HISTORY

    The National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) is a multi-partisan, multi-cultural, multi-issue grassroots organization dedicated to increasing women's participation in the political process and creating a women's political power base to achieve equality for all women by recruiting, training, and supporting pro-choice women candidates for elected and appointed offices at all levels of government, regardless of party affiliation. State and local chapters provide support to candidates running for all levels of office by helping raise money and providing volunteer assistance. The national office has moved several times, but has always been located within Washington, DC.
    Many of the original organizers of the Caucus were women who had been lobbying for congressional passage of the Equal Rights Amendment and were frustrated by their inability to influence male members of Congress. They believed their efforts would be more effective if there were more women in Congress and more politicians recognized the importance of women's votes. Goals included increasing the number of women at the local, state, and federal levels in all aspects of political life: as elected and appointed officials, as delegates to party conventions, as campaigners, as lobbyists, and as voters.
    The organizing conference was held July 10-11, 1971, in Washington, DC; more than 320 women from more than half the states and the District of Columbia attended. Participants adopted a lengthy statement of purpose that included specific actions and legislative priorities on a wide range of issues (e.g., civil rights, equal pay, tax inequities, poverty, war, health care, environment, dissent, etc.). The statement included the following declarations: "....We believe that women must take action to unite against sexism, racism, institutional violence and poverty.....We recognize the economic burden of such sweeping social change, but we believe that this country's enormous resources could be more than enough. They need only be reordered to pay for life instead of for death." At its founding, the Caucus stated its support for those candidates "whether male or female, who support women's issues and employ women in decision-making positions on their administrative and campaign staffs." Later, however, the Caucus changed its endorsement policy to support only women candidates who were also pro-choice.
    The organizing conference also adopted the report of the workshop on the future structure of the NWPC, recommending the formation of an elected National Policy Council representing diverse geographic areas, as well as political, ethnic, and issue groupings, supplemented by an assembly composed of one woman from each state, territory, and the District of Columbia, to act as the governing body of the NWPC. (The conference rejected the suggestion that a constitution and by-laws committee be established.) The Policy Council was to appoint committees, and state and local groups were to determine their own form of organization and financial support. Members of the first Policy Council were: Bella Abzug, Shana Alexander, Virginia Allan, Lupe Anguiano, Evelina Antonetty, Nikki Beare, Lorraine Beebe, Liz Carpenter, Joan Cashin, Shirley Chisholm, Mary Clarke, Myrlie Evers, Brenda Feigen Fasteau, Ronnie Feit, Betty Friedan, Jo-Ann Evans Gardner, Elinor Guggenheimer, Fannie Lou Hamer, LaDonna Harris, Wilma Scott Heide, Dorothy Height, Bobbie Kilberg, Margaret Laurence, Olga Madar, Vivan Carter Mason, Midge Miller, Paula Page, Elly Peterson, Beulah Sanders, Gloria Steinem, Cecelia Suarez, and Carole Ann Taylor.
    At its first meeting, the Policy Council established an Operating Committee to make decisions necessary to carry on work between Council meetings. Members were: Bella Abzug, Lupe Anguiano, Sue Ellen Bordwell (Rhode Island), Betty Friedan, Bobbie Kilberg, Ann Lewis (Massachusetts), Virginia McCarty (Indiana), Martha McKay (North Carolina), Gloria Steinem, Carole Ann Taylor, with ex officio members Ronnie Feit and Gwen Cherry. The Operating Committee also acted as the Convention Committee on Rules and Order of Business for the first national convention, held in Houston, Texas, in February 1973. The State and Local Caucuses Committee of the Council established a structure committee at its April 1972 meeting. Members were: Nikki Beare (chair), Ronnie Feit, JoAnne Evans Gardner, Lupe Anguiano, Virginia McCarty, Ann Lewis, Martha McKay and Pam Curtis. Meeting with other members, they held a two-day structure session, and created a proposal for the organizational structure of the NWPC. The Caucus has frequently rewritten its by-laws and adjusted its structures and procedures in response to its members' wishes.
    The following history is compiled from the convention programs for 1999 (#103.10) and 2003 (#104.6).
    For more information, please see the NWPC website.

    ARRANGEMENT

    The collection is arranged in 31 non-hierarchical series. The first three series are devoted to history and organization (Series I), and governance (Series II and III); the remaining series are arranged alphabetically, with subseries arrangements that vary as described below.

    SCOPE AND CONTENT

    The NWPC agreed to donate its records to the Schlesinger Library in 1979, but the first shipment did not arrive until April 1991. In the interim, the Caucus moved its national office, and according to a memo by former Chair Mildred "Millie" Jeffrey, "when the office moved into its former location a considerable number of historical records were discarded so there are serious gaps in our story." The Library received 26 subsequent accessions totaling more than 360 feet between 1991 and 2010. Audiotapes (T-257) and videotapes (and one motion picture) (Vt-72, MP-29) were removed and cataloged separately. Electronic records were received on 18 3.5" disks. Disks were imaged using FTK Imager and Duke Data Accessioner. Data on 2 of the 3.5" disks was unrecoverable.
    Although most of the records were in folders, these folders were jumbled within and among the many accessions, breaking apart their original order and integrity. In addition, it was not always clear who had created which file. In 1996, Millie Jeffrey and Joan McLean visited the Library and reviewed a number of documents to identify the types of records requiring temporary closure for a specified number of years. Because such sensitive documents were mixed throughout the collection in the same folders with other items requiring only written permission, it was necessary for the Library staff to screen and temporarily remove the closed documents. Former archivist Kim Brookes and numerous student assistants (including Sandra LaRoe, Margaret Lewis, Gwen Lexow, Sarah Ng, and Dorian Woods) listed the early accessions, and Brookes constructed a rough index by department and function. This early work served as the foundation for later processing.
    There are many gaps, especially in the early years: records of the organizing conference and NWPC's first four years are spotty, although there are some originals and photocopies that were gathered and organized by membership director Grace Orlansky to mark its 20th anniversary. Orlansky kept the most complete documentation of any staff member or officer. It is due almost entirely to her efforts that the minutes, leadership mailings, by-laws, resolutions, publications, convention materials, and membership files, are relatively complete. Most national officers, including chairs and presidents, have few records here. Files of the first chair, Frances "Sissy" Tarlton Farenthold, are in the Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin. There are also very few committee records, other than those kept by Orlansky.
    The surviving records highlight the work of the Caucus to increase women's political participation at all levels, to bring about women's equality, and to protect and enhance women's reproductive rights. Activities of state and local caucuses, and their relationships with the national office, are well-documented, as are internal operations and structural changes in response to grassroots demands. Newsletters and other printed material produced by state and local affiliates have been removed and have been cataloged separately (Pr-17). Candidate files are a rich source of biographical and political information about many women candidates for office in local, state, and national elections; there are also extensive files on trainings held by the Caucus on various aspects of participating in the political system. NWPC's legislative lobbying, and its efforts to promote women's appointments to judgeships and appointive offices at the state and federal levels, are well represented. The collection also shows the relationship between the NWPC's party task forces and the two major political parties (though there are few records from the Republican Task Force), as well as the Caucus's collaboration with other women's organizations.
    There is extensive overlap, and some duplication, among the various series. The leadership mailings (Series II, Subseries E) provide the most complete overview of the work of various departments, committees, and task forces. Newsletters (cataloged separately) and press releases provide important details about many events sponsored by the Caucus. Search note: there is no correspondence index. However, the names of selected correspondents (those who appear in the Additional catalog entries) can be searched using the browser's search feature. Because the search feature is also the most efficient way to find the recurring names and issues throughout the collection, there are few specific cross-references provided in the finding aid.
    Series I, HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION, 1971-2003 (#1.1-2.6, FD.1, E.1), includes correspondence, notes, reports, clippings, etc., related to the founding, structure, and general history of the NWPC. There are few records documenting the earliest years of the Caucus, although there are some originals and photocopies (designated "Founders," #1.7-1.8, 1.15-2.2) that were gathered and organized by Grace Orlansky to mark its 20th anniversary. These documents were donated to the Schlesinger Library in April 1991, and additional attempts to solicit records from founding members were continued through the July convention.
    Series II, GOVERNANCE, 1971-2005 (#2.7-17.29), contains incorporation records and by-laws, the records of the National Policy Council, the National Steering Committee (later the Board of Directors), the Administrative Committee, and leadership lists and mailings. The files are almost entirely those of Grace Orlansky; a few gaps were filled from officers' records and items found loose throughout the collection. Organizing manuals, leadership handbooks, guidelines, and related publications, are in Series XXIX (Publications). Resolutions passed at national conventions are in Series VII (Conventions). The series is divided into five subseries.
    Subseries A, Incorporation and by-laws, 1972-2001 (#2.7-2.15), includes incorporation records and by-laws, which were revised frequently, of the NWPC and its various other incorporated organizations (Campaign Support Committee; ERA Fund; Victory Fund; and Leadership Development, Education and Research Fund).
    Subseries B, National Policy Council, 1971-1973 (#2.16-3.3), includes the report of the NWPC organizing conference in July 1971, and minutes and mailings of the National Policy Council and its brief successor, the Advisory Committee (later Advisory Board). The Advisory Board was reorganized and expanded far beyond the original "founding mothers" in 1976, and charged with strengthening the financial growth and development of the NWPC. Records of the Advisory Board (1976-1990) are filed with other development records in Series IX, Subseries C (#110.10-111.6).
    Subseries C, National Steering Committee/Board of Directors, 1973-2005 (#3.4-7.22, 375.1-375.39), contains minutes of the National Steering Committee (NSC) and its subsequent body, the Board of Directors, as well as some minutes of convention plenary sessions; some later years also include Administrative Committee minutes. Created by the 1973 by-laws, the National Steering Committee is responsible for setting policies and developing programs between biennial conventions, reviewing and approving national budgets, and ensuring that the NWPC operates in accordance with its goals, purposes, and directives. The Steering Committee is composed of NWPC officers, representatives from each state elected in proportion to governing members strength, standing committee chairs, representatives from each affirmative action and special interest caucus and the partisan party task forces, and at-large delegates elected at the biennial convention. The 1999(?) revised by-laws replaced the National Steering Committee with a Board of Directors.
    Minutes of earlier meetings were usually contained in meeting packets; the archivist removed them, and arranged them in one chronological sequence (#3.4-4.6). There is a duplicate, but incomplete, set of minutes (#375.1-375.39) that includes the Administrative Committee, and which was constructed by the archivist to serve as the master file; it is closed to research use. They are followed by meeting-related files (#4.7-7.22), which usually include packets prepared for the meetings; a few include mailings, correspondence, notes, and related materials, as well.
    Subseries D, Administrative Committee, 1973-1999 (#8.1-12.14), contains minutes, mailing packets, and related. The national conference in 1973 passed by-laws that established a more permanent structure for the Caucus. Serving as the executive committee, with the same authority as the Steering Committee when the Steering Committee was not in session, the Administrative Committee met more frequently, and concentrated on budgets, policies, and planning, for presentation to the larger National Steering Committee. It was also charged with serving as the board of directors for the LDERF and the Victory Fund. It was restructured in 1999(?) as a smaller Executive Committee.
    Minutes of earlier meetings were usually contained in meeting packets; the archivist removed them, and arranged them in one chronological sequence (#8.1-9.6). Folders of minutes may include "Action" minutes, and occasional reports or supplements. Beginning in 1981, minutes of the Victory Fund and LDERF are included; there are no Victory Fund minutes after July 1991. An incomplete set of duplicate minutes, constructed by the archivist to serve as the master file, is filed with National Steering Committee minutes (#375.24-375.30); it is closed to research use. Following the minutes are the meeting packets, containing reports, budget and financial information, memos, etc., relevant to the work of the committee. Packets sent to the committee of photocopied clippings of Caucus news coverage were transferred to Series XXVIII, Subseries B (Press and Public Information Office/Clippings).
    Subseries E, Leadership lists and mailings, 1973-2004 (#13.1-17.29), includes leadership lists that provide names and addresses of all national and state officers, and chairs of task forces, committees, affirmative action, and special interest caucuses, as well as leadership mailings that provide information on issues of significance within and outside the Caucus. Mailings were sent about eight times per year to state and local Caucus chairs, national steering committee members, and members of all other national committees. Other Caucus members could subscribe at cost. Mailings included reports from the president, the national office and various committees; on-going programs (political planning, candidate support, women's appointments, federal legislation, membership recruitment and renewal, fundraising and development); credentialing and registration information before steering committee meetings and biennial conventions, and reports on actions and resolutions afterwards. Standardized in 1980, the mailings were sent in a packet with a table of contents; the table of contents was apparently dropped in 1991. Mailing dates do not always match dates of cover letters. In addition, occasional special mailings are included; they are so noted when foldered separately. Minutes and some financial information have been transferred to the appropriate subseries. For earliest mailings on policy, issues, etc., see Subseries A, National Policy Council.
    Series III, CHAIRS/PRESIDENTS, 1976-2004 (scattered) (#17.30-34.13, E.2), contains scattered records of eight Caucus chairs; there are many gaps. Records of the first chair, Frances "Sissy" Tarlton Farenthold (1973-1975), are with her papers in the Briscoe Center for American History (University of Texas at Austin). There are only two folders for Audrey Rowe Colom (Chair, 1975-1977) and one for Iris Mitgang (Chair, 1979-1981). Although Mildred "Millie" Jeffrey (Chair, 1977-1979) is minimally represented elsewhere in the collection, most of her Caucus records are with her papers in the Walter P. Reuther Library (Wayne State University). Subsequent chairs and presidents (the Chair became the President in August 1989) are documented in varying degrees, as listed below.
    Subseries A., Audrey Rowe Colom (Chair, 1975-1977), 1976-1977 contains two folders of correspondence. There are very few records for Colom's presidency.
    Subseries B. Iris Mitgang (Chair, 1979-1981), 1980, (#17.32) contains one folder of notes and clippings. Although Iris Mitgang is represented in a few folders scattered throughout the collection, most notably some in Series XXII, Subseries A (the Democratic Task Force), and throughout Series XII (the ERA campaign), the records of her presidency are largely missing.
    Subseries C, Kathy Wilson (Chair, 1981-1985), 1981-1987 (#17.33-18.10), consists mainly of letters from elected officials. The folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries D, Irene Natividad (Chair, 1985-1989), 1985-1990 (#18.11-19.4), contains a small quantity of records created during Irene Natividad's time as chair, and found scattered throughout the collection. The archivist has grouped them together; they are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries E, Sharon Rodine (President, 1989-1991), 1982-1991 (#19.5-22.12), contains files created or kept by Sharon Rodine. Her meeting files for the National Steering Committee (NSC) include information on fundraising for the meetings, arrangements, etc. The Pro-Choice Coalition folders (#20.19-22.2) document the cooperation of numerous groups to organize the 1989 Mobilize for Women's Lives press conferences and marches, and their subsequent activities to protect and expand reproductive rights; included are mailings, agendas, meeting notes, faxes (please note: fax machine-generated dates are often incorrect), flyers, a small amount of correspondence, and related items. Memos and faxes are variously addressed to the Core Group and/or the Steering Committee of the Coalition. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries F, Harriett Woods (President, 1991-1995), 1984-1996 (#22.13-31.10), contains correspondence and engagement files of Harriett Woods; the original order was maintained. Correspondence with other organizations frequently includes petitions or letters signed by NWPC ("sign-ons"). Outgoing letters (#23.5-23.15) also include some incoming letters and related material. Incoming letters and related material (#23.16-24.4) includes many letters from candidates and elected officials, and a few outgoing letters.
    "Invites" (#25.1-26.11) include correspondence, programs, and related material for accepted and declined engagements, most for events in the Washington, DC, area; included are events sponsored by the NWPC, as well as board and coalition meetings of other organizations. Many sticky notes with additional information (e.g., about whether invitation accepted or declined, reason for decline, etc.), were left in place. "Trip files" (#28.2-31.2) were so designated by Woods, and include correspondence; press releases and other publicity; invitations; and a few speech outlines or notes (full speeches are noted). There is some overlap with the "invites," and both overlap with correspondence with other organizations. Political analysis and field reports on local caucus activities are closed 50 years from date of creation. In many cases, several events are represented in each folder. Dates usually reflect those of engagements; folder contents may include documents of earlier and later dates than those listed.
    Subseries G, Anita Perez Ferguson (President, 1995-1999), 1992-1999 (#31.11 -33.14), contains a small quantity of correspondence, meeting files, and Ferguson's scheduling information, as well as some correspondence files of Ferguson's assistant, Simi Mir. Meeting files for the Administrative Committee and National Steering Committee include correspondence and notes re: financial and development issues, meeting planning and follow-up materials, etc.; they are closed 50 years from date of creation, as noted. Items duplicated in the meeting packets (#32.8-33.4) were removed unless annotated by Ferguson. For Ferguson's file as chair of the Hispanic Caucus, see #70.2. Scheduling folders may include documents earlier than date listed. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries H, Roselyn O'Connell (President, 1999-2004), 1999-2004 (#33.15-34.13, E.2), contains a few scattered files pertaining to the presidency of Roselyn O'Connell. The files may have been kept centrally, or by staff member Kristen Carter; #33.22 contained items directed to Carter, and has thus been designated as her file. The list of candidate questionnaires (#33.15) includes standard acronyms for political affiliation ("D" = Democrat, "R" = Republican), states, and office ("CD" refers to Congressional Districts for the United States House of Representatives). Original folder titles have been maintained; folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Series IV, EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS, 1972-2001 (#34.14-42.26), includes files of Jody Newman, Kathleen Hale, and some shared files from the executive director's office concerning contracts and other legal issues. Subseries are arranged chronologically by terms of service.
    Subseries A. Executive Directors, 1972-1993 (#34.14-35.17), contains an incomplete set of files kept by executive directors Jane McMichael (1973-1979), Lillie Richardella, Linda Kaplan, Gayle Melich, and Heidi Shoup. Files designated as "shared" were passed on or kept centrally in the national office; they follow those of McMichael. Each grouping is arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries B, Executive Director Jody Newman (1993?-), 1981-1996 (#35.18-40.13), includes correspondence, memos, reports, financial records, etc., covering all aspects of Caucus activities. There is overlap and duplication of memos in other series (e.g., Series XIV, Trainings).
    Subseries C, Executive Director Kathleen "Kate" Cavanaugh Hale (1999), 1992-2001 (#40.14-42.26), contains correspondence, notes, and related records kept by Kate Hale. Most documents are photocopies, faxes, or printouts of e-mails; many are addressed to an officer or other staff member, with Hale copied. Numerous folders include information about the biennial convention in 1999, including candidate filings for members running for elective office within the Caucus. Folder contents pre-dating Hale's arrival in 1999 were passed on to her by other staff members; those including documents after 1999 were updated by her successor, Judith Schotzko. Folders are arranged alphabetically, as received.
    Series V, NATIONAL OFFICE, 1974-2004 (#42.27-68.12, FD.2), contains staff meeting minutes and memos, and other office-related material; Grace Orlansky's administrative files (for Membership records, see Series XIV); personnel files and internship correspondence and forms; and chronological files. The series is arranged in five subseries.
    Subseries A, General, 1978-2004 (#42.27-44.1), includes staff meeting agendas, minutes and notes; all-staff memos; staff updates to the Board reporting on activities in each department; staff directories with position titles and addresses; job descriptions; policies and procedures manuals; employee handbook; letterhead; and state and local responses to request for information about activities and programs. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries B, Grace Orlansky, 1974-1992 (#44.2-53.28, FD.2) consists of correspondence, memos, notes, mailings, etc., kept by long-term staff member Grace Orlansky; most are heavily annotated. Orlansky worked for the Caucus from 1975 through 1991, most notably as director of membership services (1978-1986; see Series XIV, Membership, for additional records), as assistant executive director (1986-1991), and as the coordinator for the biennial conventions (1981-1989). She kept the most complete record of Caucus activities of any staff member or officer; minutes, mailings, and publications collected by Orlansky appear in other series. Original folder titles were maintained; information added by the archivist is in square brackets. "Leadership Updates" (#50.1-50.10) consist of lists of state and local officers and committee chairs; some state endorsement guidelines and committee reports; correspondence; resolutions; and some 1990 reports to the National Steering Committee. These materials were removed from binders labeled "Leadership Updates," and were organized alphabetically. The National Steering Committee files, 1978-1990 (#52.8-53.14), contain correspondence, memos, reports, notes, etc., kept by Orlansky before and after National Steering Committee (NSC) meetings. The Judicial Committee handled internal NWPC grievances; files (#47.1-47.6) are closed for 30 years. Some of the Nominations Committee (often referred to as the Nominating Committee) files were compiled by committee chairs as noted, and eventually transferred to the national office. Files are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries C, Personnel records, 1976-1988, n.d. (#54.1-56.40), are arranged alphabetically and include staff, officers, and campaign canvassers; not every employee has a file. Files may contain resumes, performance reviews, correspondence (including reasons for leaving, assessments of the organization and its procedures, etc.), identification cards with photographs, etc. A few folders contain resumes only, with no other job information.
    Subseries D, Interns/volunteers, 1978-ca.1997 (#56.41-57.13), includes policy manuals; intern resumes and correspondence; evaluations; correspondence with past interns; intern diary; memos to supervisors; information packet; and position descriptions. Following files on specific interns (#56.41-56.45), general files are arranged chronologically.
    Subseries E, Chronological files, 1981-1991 (#57.14-68.12), contains mainly outgoing correspondence from the national office. There are letters of thanks for financial support, for appearing at conference or events, and for expressing concern or support for an issue. Many of the letters are replies to requests for information, which occasionally have the request attached. There are also letters to state caucuses or members concerning fundraising efforts and membership problems, such as mailings that weren't received. Also included are post-election letters of congratulation or condolence to politicians supported by the Caucus. Letters are arranged chronologically; there are no letters from September 1987.
    Series VI, COMMITTEES AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION/SPECIAL INTEREST CAUCUSES, 1974-1999 (#68.13-70.11), includes a small quantity of scattered records documenting work of NWPC committees, Affirmative Action Caucuses, and Special Interest Caucuses. It is divided into two subseries.
    Subseries A, Committees, 1974-1999 (#68.13-69.16), contains scattered records of a few Caucus committees. Very few committee records were transferred to the Library by committee chairs; for more extensive files about committee work, see records kept by Grace Orlansky (#44.11-48.17). Standing committees, with special areas of responsibility, work with state and local caucuses and recommend strategies, programs, and policies to the National Steering Committee (NSC). The Judicial Committee handled internal NWPC grievances; Judicial Committee files are closed for 30 years. Following a folder of general information, files are arranged alphabetically by committee name.
    Subseries B, Affirmative Action/Special Interest Caucuses, 1980-1998 (#69.17-70.11), includes a small quantity of records documenting the Affirmative Action and Special Interest Caucuses. Affirmative Action Caucuses (as designated in the NWPC by-laws) are responsible for representing the interests of their constituencies to the NWPC and assisting NWPC with the development of affirmative action and special interest membership and leadership; each is entitled to send two representatives to national meetings. The Special Interest Caucuses represent members with special interests (e.g., labor or rural affairs), who could organize at the time of each biennial convention; each such caucus was entitled to send one representative to national meetings. Included in this subseries are leaflets, some correspondence, and some printed material from other groups. This series combines files from Grace Orlansky, Melissa Voohees, Ellen Kyriacou, and Anita Perez Ferguson, as noted. The files are very sparse, and the dates of materials quite scattered. Following several folders of general Affirmative Action and Special Interest Caucuses information, files of Affirmative Action Caucuses are arranged alphabetically, followed by the Special Interest Labor Caucus (#70.10) and Rural Caucus (#70.11).
    Series VII, CONVENTIONS, 1972-2003 (#70.12-104.8, FD.3, E.3-E.4), documents the biennial conventions. In addition to offering workshops, panels, and special events for both members and non-members, the convention served as the NWPC's primary governing body that voted on by-laws and resolutions. Convention delegates and alternates were determined by their state caucuses, and only official delegates were eligible to vote at the conventions. Documentation provided by the affiliate caucuses about the credentialing of delegates may include demographic profiles of members compared to state populations; questionnaires; reports of affirmative action activities and plans; by-laws; and related correspondence. This series includes program books (containing summaries of Caucus activities and accomplishments); handbooks and schedules; records of committees on by-laws, credentialing (of delegates and alternates), rules, and resolutions; nominations and elections of new officers; extensive program planning documentation, including correspondence among Caucus members and possible speakers, memos, lists of suggested speakers, speaker biographies, etc.; budget and financial information, including corporate sponsorship efforts, program book advertising, and exhibit booth rentals; local arrangements; convention evaluations by participants and debriefings by officers and staff responsible for various aspects of running the conventions; etc. Files on specific workshops usually include workshop descriptions, speaker biographies, and some planning correspondence. Workshops covered a wide range of topics.
    There are very few records for the first three conventions, held in 1973, 1975, and 1977, and for those held after 1995. Unless otherwise noted, files are those of the convention coordinator: Grace Orlansky (1981 through 1989) and Elizabeth Arledge (1993). Files for 1995 are those of outgoing president Harriett Woods, unless otherwise noted. Many documents were kept in 3-ring binders, which have been disassembled; their original order has been maintained. Most folders include correspondence, memoranda, notes and related material, and many items are duplicated in other folders. Photographs were moved to Series XXXI. Beginning in 1977, the conventions had themes. Listed below are the dates, sites, and themes of the biennial conventions. Following lists of all resolutions passed during conventions between 1972 and 1997, and a member's reflections on past conventions (#70.19), folders are arranged alphabetically within convention year.

    Biennial conventions:

    Series VIII, DEVELOPMENT: OPEN, ca.1973-1999 (#104.9-106.9), contains direct mail packets, including letters, response cards, and envelopes for associate or governing memberships; information packets used to cultivate donations from members; and event programs, announcements, and invitations for fundraising events sponsored by the NWPC. Undated direct mail letters are filed by date range based on the term of the national chair listed on the letterhead. Events include various sales and dinners related to cartoonist Garry Trudeau, a major supporter of the Caucus; the Broadway show, A Chorus Line; pre-screening of a Candice Bergen movie, A Night Full of Rain; "Sarah & Sarah" concert, featuring Sarah Vaughn and Sarah Caldwell; "An Evening with Jean Stapleton"; "A National ERA Evening"; Lobby Day Luncheons, etc.
    Subseries A, Events, 1976-1997 (#104.9-105.10) contains invitations, flyers, and programs from NPWC fundraising events, and some events not sponsored by NWPC. Events include concerts, art exhibitions, dinners, luncheons, etc. Folders are arranged in rough chronological order.
    Subseries B, Direct mail, ca.1973-1999 (#105.11-106.9) contains direct mail letters, encouraging people to join the NWPC membership or donate money. Folders are arranged in rough chronological order.
    Series IX. DEVELOPMENT: CLOSED, 1970-2003 (#107.1-130.11, FD.4, E.5), contains material on the general running of the office; direct mail/telemarketing plans and correspondence; files on individual and corporate/foundation donors; and fundraising projects, as well as material on the NWPC's bi-annual convention.
    Subseries A, General administration, 1974-2001 (#107.1-107.17), includes correspondence and memos; department budgets; fundraising agendas; quarterly reports; etc. It is arranged chronologically.
    Subseries B, Director of Development, 1977-1992 (#107.18-110.6, FD.4), includes the chronological correspondence file for 1979-1982, development-related correspondence of two NWPC executive directors, state donor lists, and contact cards for large donors (institutions and corporations), generated or accumulated by the director.
    Subseries C, Subject files, 1970-2003 (#110.7-113.6), includes correspondence, memos, and printed material kept by the directors of development and/or their assistants, and arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries D, Direct mail/telemarketing, 1972-2002 (#113.7-118.29, E.5), contains material from the Development department's direct mail and telemarketing program, organized chronologically, . The NWPC had a wide range of fundraising appeals, including Leadership Development Education and Research Fund (LDERF); Victory Fund (VF); Campaign Support Committee (CSC); Political Action Committee (PAC); Win with Women; Winner's Circle; Pioneer's Club (for their 20th Anniversary); Building Fund; ERA/NWPC funding appeal; etc. Sample letters, mock-ups of mailing packets, year-end and quarterly reports, correspondence regarding writing/editing of appeal letters, interaction with direct mail companies, etc., are included. Folders are arranged in rough chronological order.
    Subseries E, Donors/related material, 1970-1997 (#118.30-123.24), contains material on individual and corporate/institutional donors. The individual donor files are arranged alphabetically, followed by related miscellaneous files, including regular and high-end donor lists, stock contributions, etc. The corporate/institutional donor files are also arranged alphabetically, following by miscellaneous files with donor lists. At the end of the subseries, a few folders of correspondence with state affiliates relating to donations are arranged alphabetically by state. For more donor material, see also Subseries B (Director of Development).
    Subseries F, Fundraising: projects/events, 1972-2001 (#124.1-129.12), contain proposals for the NWPC projects and fundraising events. Proposed projects for funding include "Boardroom Briefings"; an abortion rights pamphlet; publication of the "Women's Political Times;" and radio spots. Events included a celebration of women in government at the Corcoran Museum of Art; Lobby Day luncheons; gala performance of Broadway show, A Chorus Line; "An Evening with Jean Stapleton"; etc. NWPC supporter and cartoonist Garry Trudeau files include correspondence, a book publicity kit, clippings, etc., relating to events in which he donated works or attended an event, as well as his "Ginny Slade for Congress" merchandise, also used for fundraising. Folders are arranged in rough chronological order.
    Subseries G, Fundraising: NWPC conventions, 1973-1991 (#129.13-130.11), contains information on the funding for the NWPC's bi-annual convention.
    Series X, DEVELOPMENT: AWARDS, 1982-2004 (#131.1-138.30, 378F+B.2) includes material for two awards given annually by the NWPC: the Exceptional Merit Media Awards (EMMAs) and the Good Guys Awards. The series is arranged in two subseries.
    Subseries A, Exceptional Merit Media Awards (EMMAs), 1982-2004 (#131.1-135.27, 378F+B.2), contain records of the EMMAs, inaugurated by the NWPC in 1987 in New York City to recognize journalists for excellence in reporting. Chair Irene Natividad, with extensive support of Advisory Board members Kate Rand Lloyd and Sey Chassler, helped develop the award concept. Recipients were recognized for bringing needed attention to stories directly influencing women's lives. In 1994, the NWPC entered into a partnership with Radcliffe College to co-produce the event. This alliance lasted five years, during which Radcliffe was responsible for judge selection, holding the judging meetings, choosing winners, and having a college representative attend the awards ceremony. Awards are given in various categories: newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and the Internet. All proceeds from the event go to the NWPC Leadership Development, Education and Research Fund (LDERF), which is used for candidate training, seminars, and the Appointments Project.
    The series contains correspondence and notes on the development of the awards program and a list of program sponsors (1987-1990), followed by material arranged alphabetically within each year. Included are event notes; timelines; scripts (for emcees and presenters); submission request letters/forms sent to media outlets for nominations; lists of winners; winning submissions; biographies for ceremony introductions; contact lists; correspondence; judging instructions; press releases; announcements of winners; miscellaneous clippings about individuals; solicitation letters to corporate or individual sponsors; call lists; notes; invitations; and programs. Folder headings are those of the NWPC.
    Subseries B, Good Guys Awards, 1985-2001 (#135.28-138.30), contains the records of the award. Believing that women's equality can only be attained in American society through the combined efforts of men and women, the NWPC launched the first of its annual Good Guys awards in 1985 at a dinner in Washington, DC, to honor, acknowledge, and thank men who contributed to women's political and economic advancement. Thereafter, the NWPC leadership chose men from various walks of life--including actors, politicians, journalists, talk show hosts, philanthropists, and cartoonists--for recognition at this widely publicized event. Funds raised are designated for the NWPC's Leadership Development, Education and Research Fund (LDERF), which underwrites critical candidate training and development programs. State caucuses were encouraged to recognize local men in similar events.
    A list of corporate sponsors and winners is followed by material arranged alphabetically by year. Event/operations binders (i.e., 1986-1988, 1997) include notes; sample letters (to sponsors, individual donors, honorees, presenters); press material; budget reports; bills; memos; etc. Other files include correspondence; event schedules; scripts; list of presenters; press releases; clippings; guidelines for handling the press; sign-in sheets; lists of winners; honoree biographies; invitations; programs; announcements; save-the-date cards (for some years); form letters; donation lists; etc. Folder headings are those of the NWPC.
    Series XI, FINANCIAL, 1972-2000 (#139.1-148.15, FD.5), includes yearly auditor's reports of the NWPC, Victory Fund, and LDERF, with financial statements and related correspondence; some budget projections and quarterly statements; budget requests and reports for special caucuses (e.g., Black Caucus, Older Women's Caucus, etc.); and correspondence and memos from Finance Committee chairs. Audit working papers include membership information; instructions for running financial operations of Caucus; charts of accounts; large donor lists; etc. Tax returns may include employee information, correspondence, and other related documents; dates listed are for tax year, and folders may include earlier and later documents. Some budget development records were compiled by executive directors. Most financial records remain with the NWPC; financial files transferred to the Library are random and incomplete. Folder titles are those of the NWPC, unless noted in square brackets. Audits, financial statements, and tax records are followed by a rough chronological arrangement.
    Series XII, LEGISLATION: EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT COMMITTEE, 1971-1983 (#149.1-158.16, FD.6), contains records related to the NWPC's ERA campaigns. It is divided into three subseries: administrative files, general files on supporters and opponents, and materials on ERA campaigns in unratified states.
    The Caucus identified passage of the ERA as its top priority at its third biennial convention in 1977. According to their 10th Anniversary Convention Program, "The planning and implementation of the Caucus' ratification strategy is the responsibility of the ERA Committee, a special committee appointed by the NWPC Chair. Four subcommittees assist the committee in fulfilling its functions: technical assistance and political organizing, outreach and coordination, finance and fundraising, and public relations and media. State chairs of each of the unratified states sit on the committee as well." The NWPC ERA Fund was formed in 1977 by members acting individually. Monies for the Fund were "raised by direct mail, a door-to-door canvass, special events, and a state pledge plan."
    Subseries A, ERA administrative, 1976-1982 (#149.1-151.5), includes minutes, financial records, correspondence, histories and election analyses, and other materials of ERAmerica, of which NWPC was a member; the Equal Rights Amendment Committee of the NWPC; and the NWPC/ERA Fund. Minutes and other Board-related materials for ERAmerica are filed first, followed by their Steering Committee minutes and more general files, arranged chronologically. Files of the NWPC ERA Committee and the NWPC/ERA Fund are each arranged chronologically.
    Subseries B, ERA general files, 1971-1983 (#151.6-151.31), includes mainly printed information on opponents and supporters of the ERA (arranged alphabetically), as well as several more general folders on the ERA (arranged chronologically). There is a small amount of correspondence.
    Subseries C. ERA: unratified states, 1974-1982 (#152.1-158.16, FD.6), contains correspondence, fact sheets, election analyses of pro- and anti-ERA candidates, financial and fundraising information, voting records of state legislators, ratification strategies and plans, reports, etc., related to efforts to ratify the ERA in unratified states. The subseries is arranged alphabetically by state, and chronologically thereunder.

    Scope and Contents

    Series XIII, LEGISLATIVE OFFICE, 1970-1991 (#159.1-169.19) contains the files of legislative directors Carol Bros, Catherine East, Ann Kolker, and Rebecca Tillet, as well as assistants Becky Bown and Diane Reis. They consist of notes, memos, correspondence, testimony before government bodies (see also #353.10-353.20), and related documents on a wide variety of issues before Congress or state legislatures. Many files were shared, and passed on from director to director; they contain notes by several different staffers, as well as correspondence of NWPC chairs. Arranged alphabetically, most files are those of Rebecca Tillet, or were shared, unless otherwise noted. Some folders containing very few items have been combined, and original headings listed. The files were weeded to remove widely available publications. The Legislative Office produced charts detailing the voting records of members of the United States Congress on a variety of issues. For information on the Equal Rights Amendment, see Series XII. For regular reports and updates on the work of the Legislative Office, see the leadership mailings (Series II, Subseries E).
    Series XIV, MEMBERSHIP SERVICES, 1970-2003 (#169.20-198.14, E.6-E.9), contains files from the Membership Department, which was responsible for coordinating monthly mailings to the NWPC leadership (state and local caucus chairs and national committees); assisting with periodic meetings of the National Steering Committee; answering questions about the structure of the organization; and providing information and assistance relevant to membership recruitment. The series is divided into five subseries, as received from the national office. Original file label titles were kept when possible.
    Subseries A, General files, 1970-2003 (#169.20-179.3, 182.1-182.6, E.6-E.7), contains files accumulated by Membership Directors Grace Orlansky, Melissa Voorhees, and Ellen Kyriacou. Open (with written permission) material is grouped at the beginning of the subseries and includes brochures for the NWPC, state, local and special groups, as well as samples of membership recruitment and renewal mailings. The remaining files are CLOSED PENDING NEGOTIATIONS. They are arranged chronologically and thereunder alphabetically within date ranges, and include material on a 1980 survey distributed by the NWPC to state caucuses, requesting information on six major areas: organization, membership, legislation, political action, fundraising, and public relations. Survey responses include budgets, by-laws, press releases, leaflets, handbooks, etc. Notes and correspondence on the development of the survey form, state survey responses, and follow-up survey mailings are also included. Governing membership summary reports from 1993 are samples representing other year's membership reports. Membership correspondence is found throughout the series, between the NWPC, membership committee, state caucuses, and staff members. These letters cover member recruitment and renewal, office administration issues, national chair announcements, etc. Statistical charts, copies of by-laws, and correspondence in support of the state caucus credentialing process were frequently sent to the national office and are located throughout the series. Also included are correspondence with Grace Orlansky regarding state caucuses, membership information, Black Caucus, annual conventions, Young Caucus, etc.
    Subseries B, State files, 1984-1990, 1995-1999 (#179.4-181.4), contains files of the Membership Director's office, consisting of correspondence on recruitment, renewals, record-keeping procedures and problems, etc.; report forms listing numbers of new members and renewals on a monthly basis; and state by-laws. Files were extensively weeded by the archivist, removing copies of cancelled checks from individuals, routine correspondence, and mailing lists. A majority of the files are from 1998-1999; California and New York files from 1984-1990 were kept as examples of membership processing difficulties.
    Subseries C, State development files, 1971-1990 (#181.5-181.18, 183.1-192.19), appear to have been created by Grace Orlansky. Routine correspondence was heavily weeded due to its uninformative and repetitive nature; remaining correspondence details more substantive issues, including complaints, disputes, and disagreements within chapters, or between individual chapters and the national organization. Files are arranged alphabetically by state. Records pertaining to each state were in four categories when received: structure (by-laws, minutes, lists of officers, correspondence about, mailings, convention programs, etc.); correspondence (and related leaflets); press/publicity (including information on related, non-Caucus organizations and events); and newsletters (often containing non-newsletter printed material, as well). Folders of newsletters were removed and will be cataloged separately; leaflets, mailings, minutes, invitations, programs, etc., were removed from the newsletter folders and combined with remaining folders for each state.
    Subseries D, State files, 1977-1994 (#193.1-198.14), contain membership directories, state rosters, and other materials to and from a variety of people in the national office, most noticeably Michele A. Parish and Harriett Woods. Files are arranged alphabetically by state. General files may include correspondence, by-laws, press releases, leaflets, etc. Some state files are divided into three or four categories: correspondence, technical, newsletters, and events. Technical files may contain by-laws, membership updates, minutes, etc., all of which may also appear in general or correspondence folders. Event files contain clippings and printed material from the state caucuses and other groups with which the caucuses worked. Newsletters were removed and will be cataloged separately.
    Subseries E, Field Department, 1980, 1992-1997 (#199.1-199.18, E.8-E.9), includes files of Michele Parish (National Field Director from early 1993 through early 1995), and assistant Tina Weatherwax. The Field Department apparently existed for a relatively short time (ca.1992-1996?), and was responsible for guiding grassroots activities through work with state and local caucuses, helping expand membership and activities, and providing assistance to those wishing to start new chapters. It co-existed with membership services, but ca.1997 the responsibilities were again merged in one staff position: Membership and Field Coordinator.
    Series XV, POLITICAL PROGRAM: POLITICAL DIRECTORS, 1978-1995 (#200.1-220.17 ), contains files of some of the political directors; most are incomplete. Files of Monica McFadden (1984-1986) and Marie Morse (1989-1991) appear to be the most complete. The Political Director was responsible for political and candidate-related programs and activities, including candidate recruitment and support, and special projects. Files may contain correspondence, memos, reports, etc., and document interactions with candidates, political parties, and other organizations involved in electoral activity. There are nine subseries, arranged in chronological order by date of office tenure.
    Subseries A, Marybel Batjer (Political Director 1980), 1979-1981 (#200.1-202.6), contains a small set of files that document some of Batjer's work as Political Director. Most are related to the Campaign Support Committee (CSC), launched in 1976 as the Caucus' political action committee and chief vehicle for supporting feminist campaigns. State files contain some correspondence and funding requests, notes, campaign materials, endorsement information, etc. The few state and publications originally filed here were removed and will be cataloged separately.
    Subseries B, Maryanne Sandretti (Political Director 1981-1982), 1981-1984 (#202.7-202.14), contains only a small number of files from Sandretti's tenure as Political Director. They are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries C, Laurie Westley (Political Director 1982-1983?), 1981-1984 (#202.15-202.21), consists of seven folders about candidates, voters, and the Equal Rights Amendment; they are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries D. Mia Homan (Political Director 1983-?), 1982-1983 (#202.22-202.25), contains only four thin folders from Homan's tenure as Political Director. They are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries E, Monica McFadden (Political Director 1984-1986), 1978-1989 (#203.1-210.5), contains extensive notes on meetings and telephone conversations; memos; correspondence; mailings from the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and Republican National Committee (RNC); delegate survey design and results; and related material. The 1984 Democratic Convention, held in San Francisco in July, is especially well-documented; folders consist mostly of McFadden's extensive notes, and some correspondence, dated 1984 unless otherwise noted (some documents earlier and later). The NWPC worked for a number of months before the convention to lobby successfully for the nomination of a woman candidate for vice president. The Caucus endorsed the Walter Mondale/Geraldine Ferraro ticket, and many folders document Caucus attempts to gauge the reaction of their membership to their first presidential endorsement, as well as their campaign efforts. McFadden's files on meetings of the Political Planning Committee (PPC) were transferred to Series XVI (Political program: Political Planning Committee). For files related to McFadden's work on surveys conducted or sponsored by the NWPC, see #209.2-209.5; survey findings are in Series XXIII (Political program: Surveys).
    Subseries F, Marianne Fowler (Political Director 1987-1989), 1984-1988 (#210.6-211.7), contains a small number of files apparently created by Fowler when she was Political Director. Other files may have been passed on to her. Files created by Fowler when she was head of the Political Planning Committee (PPC) and a member of the Virginia WPC are in Series XVI (PPC). Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries G, Marie Morse (Political Director 1989-1991), 1983-1991 (#211.8-218.6), contains files created by Morse, as well as some inherited from others. Some folders contained only a page or two of notes; the archivist marked these notes with the original folder titles and combined them in one folder (#213.22). Folders are arranged alphabetically. Political Planning Committee (PPC) meetings were held during meetings of the National Steering Committee (NSC), unless otherwise noted.
    Subseries H, Rebecca Tillett (Political Director 1991-1993), 1990-1992 (#218.7-218.14), contains a few folders kept by Tillet, as well as some inherited from others.
    Subseries I, Mary Beth Lambert (Political Director 1993-1995), 1980-1995 (#218.15-220.17), contains files created by Lambert, as well as some inherited from others. The "candidate endorsements" folders, organized by state, contain correspondence and memos, clippings, by-laws, etc., relating to candidate endorsements and to developing state and local caucuses; documentation varies greatly in quantity and substance.
    SERIES XVI, POLITICAL PROGRAM: POLITICAL PLANNING COMMITTEE, 1980-2004 (#221.1-229.22), contains minutes, correspondence, memos, reports, candidate endorsement materials, etc. The Political Planning Committee (PPC) was formed in early 1979. According to the NWPC 1981 convention program (#73.10): "The Political Planning Committee is the oversight committee for all electoral activity recommendations of NWPC. Made up of members from across the country and of both major political parties, the Political Planning Committee recommends candidates for endorsement to the Campaign Support Committee of NWPC. The Political Planning Committee also promulgates endorsement guidelines for federal-level candidates and oversees political action planning for all of the electoral, educational, and organizational activities of NWPC." Political Planning Committee meetings were scheduled as part of National Steering Committee (NSC) and Administrative Committee meetings; the Political Planning Interim Committee (PPIC) met between meetings of the full Political Planning Committee. The Political Planning Committee became the Political Planning and Appointments Committee (PPAC), in 1993(?). There are some gaps in the record, as noted.
    Subseries A, Administration: minutes and related, 1980-2004 (#221.1-224.20), includes minutes, followed by materials distributed for meetings, which may also include notes, candidate endorsement requests, political profiles and analysis, and other related papers, dated earlier or later than the corresponding meeting. Meeting files kept by Political Directors have been transferred to this subseries to fill gaps in the record. The subseries is arranged with a chronological run of minutes, followed by a chronological arrangement of minute packets and related notes and other materials kept by the Political Directors, as noted.
    Subseries B, Endorsement guidelines and requests, 1982-2000 (#225.1-229.22), includes guidelines for national and state candidate endorsements; candidate requests for endorsement and/or financial support, some including biographical information; lists of potential candidates; campaign literature; state caucus letters of support; campaign analysis; etc. Many folders contain large numbers of photocopies; there may be considerable overlap of documentation in some cases.
    Series XVII, POLITICAL PROGRAM: POLITICAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT, 1975-2005 (#230.1-233.41), contains chronological files; information on state caucus election activities, etc. Files often contain notes of more than one staff member of the department variously named Political Program Department and Political Planning Department.
    Subseries A, Administration, 1975-2005 (#230.1-232.14), contains chronological files, though most years are missing; information on state caucus endorsements; and other. The chronological files consist mostly of ERA Committee and NWPC Equal Rights Amendment Fund; and re: the National Directory of Women in Elected Office, women running for office; etc., by Kay Gillan, Maryanne Sandretti, and Madeleine Perreault; also a few incoming letters. See Subseries B for correspondence and other materials filed by organization. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries B, Organizations, 1980-1990 (#232.15-233.41), contains files on other organizations kept centrally by the Political Directors and other staff. Folders may contain memos, notes, correspondence, printed material, etc., by or about the organization. Files of Political Directors (Series XV) contain similar materials.
    Series XVIII, POLITICAL PROGRAM: CAMPAIGN FINANCE REPORTS, 1980-1996,1999 (#234.1-237.22), includes reports on receipts and disbursements for NWPC's Campaign Support Committee (a separate segregated fund), Victory Fund (an independent political committee that paid the NWPC a royalty for use of its name), and the Win With Women Fund (PAC). These funds contributed to campaigns of candidates supported by NWPC, and were legally required to report certain transactions to the Federal Election Commission (FEC), and to some state agencies. Some FEC folders also include correspondence and state reports. State filings may include reports, notes, and correspondence with state agencies about filing regulations. Following a folder of general correspondence and one of the Campaign Support Fund, folders are arranged alphabetically, and thereunder chronologically.
    Series XIX, POLITICAL PROGRAM: CANDIDATE FILES, 1980-2006 (#237.23-281.42), contains correspondence; notes; resumes and other biographical information; NWPC candidate questionnaires; information on campaign structure and budgets; campaign materials (flyers, newsletters, bumper stickers, etc.), political analysis; press releases; clippings, etc., for women candidates seeking endorsement by the NWPC in primaries and/or final elections. Not all listed candidates were endorsed; in addition, some candidates withdrew after their initial exploratory efforts. In some cases, campaign materials and clippings about opponents are also included.
    The original order has been maintained within each group of files; original folder labels designated office and date of election. Files for the 1992 elections were grouped by office (e.g., United States House), and within office, alphabetically. For files before 1982, see #230.5 and Series XV, Subseries A (Political Director Marybel Batjer). Dates listed are those of the election; folders may contain documents from previous years, and follow-up materials from the post-election year. The same candidate may have files in several subseries; use the browser's search feature to find relevant material.
    Subseries A, 1982 candidates, 1980-1982 (#237.23-239.26), contains one alphabetical run of all candidates seeking endorsement by the NWPC for federal, state, or local office. Some 1982 files also contain 1980 donation information. Original folder titles contained no information on office sought.
    Subseries B, 1983-1990 candidates, 1983-1990 (#240.1-256.20), consists of one alphabetical sequence of candidate files for elections held between 1983 and 1990, as received from the NWPC, unless otherwise noted. Folders described as "[Files received in later batch]" were received in one alphabetical group with the 1997 accession, and interfiled by the archivist. Folder titles use standard acronyms for political affiliation (D = Democrat, R = Republican, DFL = Democratic-Farmer-Labor, the Minnesota affiliate of the Democratic Party), states, and office ( "CD" refers to Congressional Districts for the United States House of Representatives). Listed dates designate the election year; dates of documents in folders may be earlier and/or later than those listed. One folder of "miscellaneous" candidates follows this sequence. See also Subseries C (1990 candidates for United States Congress), which includes additional files on elections held between 1984 and 1990 for some candidates. Not all listed candidates were endorsed.
    Subseries C, 1990 candidates for United States Congress, 1984-1990 (#257.1-260.10), contains clippings, correspondence, press releases, some campaign material by and about opponents, etc., for candidates running for the United States House or Senate in 1990, as well as for their earlier elections (1984-1990), with some documents earlier and/or later (e.g., 1992 brief biographies). Most files appear to have been kept by Marie Morse, and include materials from Marianne Fowler. Election years are listed, with spans given for multiple elections; odd years indicate special elections. Because candidate files were arranged by candidate's most recent election, in some cases earlier documents on non-congressional elections are also included.
    Subseries D, 1992 elected candidates for United States Congress, 1988-1993 (#260.11-264.10), includes correspondence, campaign material, clippings, etc., for successful candidates running for both the United States House of Representatives and the Senate. Many files include follow-up letters and updated biographies from the NWPC in early 1993, and a few include some earlier items from 1991. Files are arranged alphabetically within separate groupings for the House and Senate. The subseries also includes one folder (#264.8) on Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX), elected to the Senate in a special election in 1993. Although this subseries includes documents for earlier campaigns of Cynthia McKinney (#262.16-262.18) and Jan Meyers (#263.2), most documents related to earlier elections of listed candidates are in the previous subseries.
    Subseries E, 1992 unsuccessful candidates for United States Congress, President, and Vice President, 1991-1993 (#264.11-274.6), contains clippings, correspondence, press releases, some campaign material by and about opponents, etc., for candidates running for federal office in 1992. Files may include earlier and later materials; some files have notations only. Files are arranged alphabetically within groupings by office.
    Subseries F, 1992 state and local candidates, 1991-1993 (#274.7-275.28), includes files for elected and unsuccessful candidates, as arranged by the NWPC. Parties are listed when known; some elections were non-partisan. The subseries also includes a folder (#275.16) on Betty Nixon's 1991 race for mayor of Nashville, Tennessee, and the1993 election of New Jersey governor Christy Todd Whitman (R-NJ).
    Subseries G, 1994-1999 federal, state, and local candidates, 1994-1999 (#276.1-276.10), contains only a few folders, possibly assembled by former Political Director Nick Demeter (1997-1999). Some additional information for specific candidates contesting elections in these years may be found in later subseries, as received from the Caucus and noted. Most files covering these years had not been transferred to the Schlesinger Library as of November 2012. They are arranged alphabetically by candidate.
    Subseries H, 2000-2006 federal, state, and local candidates, 1998-2006 (#276.11-281.42), contains files for successful and unsuccessful candidates for federal, state, and local office, possibly assembled by political director Katherine Minarik (for elections in 2000 and 2002) and external affairs director Tressa Feher (for elections in 2004). Included are originals and copies of candidate questionnaires, photocopies and faxes of clippings, occasional thank you letters from candidates, campaign material, etc. Some folders consist only of an outgoing NWPC letter requesting return of the candidate questionnaire for endorsement consideration, or a one page summary. Unless otherwise noted, files include information on candidates running in elections held in 2000, 2002, and 2004, as noted. Not all candidates were endorsed by the NWPC. Very few files contain any political analysis, other than that in published clippings. Redistricting following Census 2000 led to a few changes in congressional districts, as noted. Files are grouped by election year, and arranged alphabetically by candidate thereunder.
    Series XX, POLITICAL PROGRAM: DELEGATE SELECTION PROJECT, 1972-1984 (#281.43-282.19), includes general records pertaining to the NWPC's Delegate Selection Project: proposal for funding, reports, correspondence, statistics, etc. Building on earlier efforts, the NWPC began a large-scale Delegate Selection Project in 1979. Seeking to "increase the participation of women in the presidential nominating process, both as delegates to the national conventions and as participants in the delegate selection process," the NWPC "conducted training sessions, monitored party compliance with delegate selection rules, and formed support networks for women who had been elected delegates." (See "Proposal" in #282.5). For delegate selection records specific to the Democratic and Republican Task Forces, see Series XXII. The records are arranged chronologically, and thereunder alphabetically.
    Series XXI, POLITICAL PROGRAM: EMPOWER AMERICA PROJECT, 1984-1991 (#282.20-285.4), includes press releases, newsletters, organizer materials, correspondence and notes, speeches, campaign finance filings, campaign literature, etc., related to Caucus efforts to elect pro-choice candidates to public office. Following the 1989 Supreme Court decision Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, granting states wider powers to regulate abortion, the NWPC announced the first organized electoral response. The EMPOWER America project was designed to elect pro-choice women candidates in ten key states (Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Maryland, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) "where a small difference in the composition of the legislature could have a dramatic effect on abortion policy." EMPOWER recruited and trained pro-choice women to run in targeted districts; assisted candidates in framing the issues, especially through use of a Caucus publication entitled "Your Campaign and Abortion Rights" (1989); and created voter identification files in targeted districts to get out the pro-choice vote. Most of these elections were held in 1990. For an evaluation of the project's effectiveness, see #283.7-283.10. Unless otherwise noted, files are those of Rebecca Tillet.
    Subseries A, General, 1984-1990 (#282.20-284.1), contains material on running the EMPOWER America project overall. For material on specific states, see Subseries B. Following press releases and other general information, files are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries B, State activities, 1989-1991 (#284.2-285.4), contains documents relating to campaigns in individual states. Folders may include state campaign finance filings and related material, memos and correspondence, some campaign literature, and uncataloged photographs. Files are arranged alphabetically by state following one folder of correspondence with multiple states.
    Series XXII, POLITICAL PROGRAM: PARTISAN PARTY TASK FORCES, 1971-2004 (#285.5-291.13, FD.7, 372F+B.7-372F+B.9), contains rosters, minutes, newsletters, financial records, mailings, correspondence, information about delegate selection and delegate positions, etc. It is divided into two subseries: Subseries A, the Democratic Task Force (DTF), and Subseries B, the Republican Task Force (RTF). These two political party task forces were created by the NWPC in 1975. All members of the political party task forces are governing members of the NWPC, the task forces each have one vote at national meetings and conventions, and they may not take positions inconsistent with those of the Caucus. Task force objectives include organizing and training Caucus members for effective participation within their national and state parties; building a feminist network within each party; monitoring party activities and policies; recruiting and supporting feminist candidates within each party; recruiting active party workers to the Caucus; representing the NWPC at partisan functions; and playing an active and aggressive role in pursuit of NWPC goals within each party. For additional reports and information that may be missing in the following subseries, see Series II, Subseries E (Leadership Mailings).
    Subseries A, Democratic Task Force (DTF), 1971-2004 (#285.5-290.9, FD.7, 372F+B.7-372F+B.9), documents the work of the DTF. Included are records of extensive interaction with the Democratic National Committee (DNC), particularly surrounding the Democratic Party's national conventions. Platform hearings, demographics, and issue positions of convention delegates are well-documented for the 1984 convention. "Delegate positions" from the 1984 convention (#288.14-288.18) are summary sheets listing delegates' stands on various issues; "delegate profiles" (#289.1-289.4), contain individual sheets for each delegate from Idaho, New Jersey, and Utah only, and notes on affiliations and issues. Not all delegates responded to the surveys; their entries are blank. There are several folders showing the role of the DTF leading up to and participating in the Hunt Commission (the DNC's Commission on Presidential Nominations), charged with proposing rules to ensure the equal division of male and female delegates to the Democrats' national conventions. Files for the 1984 Democratic convention document the successful effort to nominate a woman (Geraldine Ferraro) as the vice presidential candidate. Files are arranged alphabetically, and thereunder chronologically.
    Subseries B, Republican Task Force (RTF), 1976-2004 (#290.10-291.13), documents the work of the RTF. According to a mailing from RTF chair Sharon Macha in early 1981: "....the Republican Women's Task Force [RWTF] was an existing, autonomous organization prior to 1975 when it formally affiliated with the National Women's Political Caucus. At the 1979 National NWPC Convention the delegates voted a by-laws change requiring that partisan party task forces within NWPC be comprised of governing (voting) members of NWPC. Guidelines to implement this by-laws change and to define the goals and organizational structure of partisan party task forces were passed by the NWPC Steering Committee at its May 1980 meeting in Houston." However, many RWTF members did not want to become NWPC members, and " it was mutually agreed that the RWTF as it exists would become independent from NWPC…..a Republican partisan task force within NWPC as defined by the by-laws and guidelines…will be known as NWPC Republicans until a name is formalized at the 1981 NWPC national convention." There are very few records, because as Grace Orlansky explained (letter of December 6, 1985): "Our records are a bit spotty, primarily because the RTF has always maintained its own files, and not always copied the national office."
    There was little order to the original folders: the contents overlapped, most were labeled only "RTF," and few headings included dates. Following #290.10 ("Overview"), the archivist has sorted the records into several categories and assigned headings that appear in square brackets.
    SERIES XXIII. POLITICAL PROGRAM: SURVEYS, 1982-1988 (#291.14-293.9, 369FB-371FB), includes several survey reports and raw data. For correspondence, notes, proposals, additional published findings, etc., about various surveys, see Series XV (Political Directors). Surveys are arranged chronologically.
    Series XXIV, POLITICAL PROGRAM: TRAININGS, ca.1973-2001 (#293.10-311.4, E.10), includes agendas, correspondence, participant lists, evaluations, etc., relating to training sessions offered by the NWPC, usually in conjunction with local caucuses. Records document the administrative aspects of arranging the sessions, general materials given to participants, political backgrounds and other biographical information on trainers and participants, and participant evaluations. Files of Director of Training Elizabeth Arledge are noted. The series is arranged in five subseries.
    Subseries A, Standard, 1988-1996 (#293.10-300.18), contains agendas, correspondence, participant lists, evaluations, etc. The purpose of these training sessions was to help women at the state legislative and local levels attract and maintain support. General materials from each year of training are listed before those pertaining to specific training sessions. Folders are arranged alphabetically by state within a chronological arrangement.
    Subseries B, Women of color, 1986-1994 (#300.19-304.2), contains agendas, correspondence, applications, participant lists, evaluations, etc., for campaign trainings to help women of color at the state legislative and local levels attract and maintain support. For related trainings, see Subseries C and D. Folders are arranged alphabetically by state within a chronological arrangement.
    Subseries C, Specialized, 1985-1999 (#304.3-306.5, E.10), contains agendas, correspondence, participant lists, evaluations, etc., relating to sessions organized by the NWPC, and usually targeting a specific group of women. The trainings were generally more advanced than the standard training sessions. Folders are arranged alphabetically by training name, and thereunder chronologically.
    Also included are training director Elizabeth Arledge's files (#304.18-305.6) on the Post-Election Debriefing and Analysis for Women State Legislators invitation-only conference, held November 12-14, 1992 (Washington, DC). The Caucus invited 58 women legislators from 33 states to participate in a post-election conference, hosted by Harriett Woods, with presentations by candidates, campaign consultants, journalists, election analysts, and others. The conference analyzed the 1992 elections, while focusing on the role of various issues in the campaign, including that of women's health. The files are arranged in rough chronological order, from the early planning stages to post-conference evaluations and correspondence.
    Subseries D, Partnerships and State WPCs, 1979-1995 (scattered) (#306.6-307.2), contains agendas, correspondence, participant lists, evaluations, etc. Materials relate to sessions co-sponsored by the NWPC with other organizations. There are also folders concerning undeveloped plans for partnerships. Folders are arranged alphabetically.
    Subseries E, National Women's Education Fund and other organizations, ca.1973-2001 (scattered) (#307.3-311.4), contains correspondence and manuals relating to planning sessions or training materials created by other organizations. The NWEF was an outgrowth of the National Women's Political Caucus. According to the Fund's "A Short History of the National Women's Education Fund," the Fund "originated in 1972 with a national series of successful seminars to teach women how to become delegates to the national party conventions. In 1973 the National Women's Education Fund opened a Washington, DC, office and was granted tax-exempt status under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code….The Fund's initial programs taught women the skills of planning and managing campaigns for public office at the state and local levels…..[These programs] were planned to link diverse groups of women across geographic, social, economic, racial and political boundaries that had traditionally separated them…..Recognizing the need to reach more women than could attend Institutes, the Fund in 1974 began to develop materials for use by individuals and organizations." Rosalie Whelan was appointed NWEF's executive director in 1979. The Fund voted to suspend operations in 1986, following several years of financial difficulties. NWEF files are arranged roughly chronologically; the sequence of files for numbered seminar/workshops (#308.8-310.4) may contain published versions, drafts, and/or notes, for 1982 and later (many undated). Several folders related to other organizations follow. For additional holdings of NWEF records in the Schlesinger Library, see HOLLIS, Harvard's online catalog.
    Series XXV, POLITICAL PROGRAM: WOMEN'S APPOINTMENTS: OPEN, 1971-2001 (#313.10-326.4, E.11-E.12), includes press releases, general information, clippings, routine correspondence, lists of job openings, and other records of a public nature. The Coalition for Women's Appointments (CWA) was organized in 1976 in response to President Jimmy Carter's commitment to appoint women in significant numbers to key posts within the federal government and increase their presence in governmental policy-making positions. At the time, the NWPC was the only women's rights organization with a national project to evaluate appointments in terms of their impact on women's issues. Brought together every four years in anticipation of the presidential election, the Coalition for Women's Appointments is a bipartisan effort to identify and recruit qualified women for presidential appointment. Most active immediately preceding and during presidential transitions (when most appointments are made), the Coalition generates few records in non-presidential election years.
    Coalition objectives include helping women gain equal access and consideration in the traditional recruitment and placement process for presidential appointments; establishing a talent bank of women qualified for senior-level government positions; educating women on the appointment process; qualitatively and quantitatively increasing the number of women in the government's decision-making positions; and dispelling the myth that "not enough qualified women can be found." Comprised of representatives of various women's organizations, the Coalition serves as a resource network, chaired and staffed by the NWPC. To further this imperative, the NWPC launched the Judicial Appointments Project in 1977 to push for women's appointments to state and federal courts. The Coalition and the Judicial Appointments Project appear to have merged in 1985.
    The series is divided into four subseries, arranged chronologically by the various Coalition initiatives. Subseries A contains general administrative material (1976-1987) relating to the Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan administrations. Subseries B documents the Presidential Appointments Project (1988-1999), initiated in 1988, and covering the administrations of George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton. Subseries C contains material from the Women's Appointment Project, formally established in 2000, and covering the George W. Bush administrations. Subseries D includes the separate files for the Judicial Appointments Project, which appears to have merged with the Coalition in 1985. Correspondence, meeting material, subject files, task force information, etc., on each initiative is organized chronologically and/or alphabetically within the subseries.
    In 1988, the Coalition assisted in the placement of forty women in high-level positions within the George H. W. Bush Administration. The Presidential Appointments Project was developed under the Coalition to work solely on appointment issues, after the Council of Presidents was formed in 1988, taking over the Coalition's lobbying aspects. In 1992, a third of President-elect Bill Clinton's selections for "top 400" Senate-confirmed positions were women. Seven of those recommended by the Project were appointed, including Janet Reno, first woman Attorney General.
    The structure of the Coalition has evolved over time, but retains basic elements. Member organizations designated representatives to attend meetings and vote on endorsements. Throughout the Carter and Reagan years, there existed an "informal, volunteer" Coordinating Committee. However, during 1988-1989, the Coordinating Committee was not revived. By 1988 the Coalition was managed by the advisory board, member organizations, and task forces. The task forces centered around different areas of government service, and each consisted of women prominent in their field who could encourage other qualified women to seek appointments. Performing the preliminary work of the Coalition, the task forces gathered resumes and recommended names.
    In 2000, the NWPC and the National Council of Women's Organizations (NCWO) joined forces with a sponsoring partner, the Barbara Lee Family Foundation, to spearhead the 2001 Women's Appointments Project (WAP) under the authority of the Coalition. This pro-choice, bi-partisan effort aimed to ensure that qualified pro-choice women candidates were appointed to key positions in the George W. Bush Administration. The Project became active again in 2004, gathering and screening resumes and submitting names to the re-elected President's staff for various appointments.
    Folders may include documents from earlier and later than the presidential administrations listed in the folder titles; original folder titles and contents were retained. There is significant duplication and overlap among folder contents.
    Subseries A, Coalition for Women's Appointments (1976-1987), 1976-1986 (#313.10-318.11), contains historical information, memos, clippings, guidelines, information on CWA membership, etc. The meetings section includes material on the Appointments Coalition and Coordinating Committee, as well as notes from meetings with presidential campaign managers. The federal women appointees files are arranged chronologically and include appointment comparisons between the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, and Jimmy Carter. Files on various groups are labeled "Anthropologists," "Blacks," "Hispanics," etc., to identify and cultivate those interested in a partnership with the Coalition.
    Subject files generated by Marilyn Nejelski, Appointments Project Director (ca.1980-1986), are arranged in broad alphabetical groups (e.g., administration, meetings, subject files), and thereunder chronologically, using their original folder titles. Although these files were specifically labeled as belonging to Nejelski, other (non-subject) files in this subseries may also have belonged to her. Documents within folders may cover wide date ranges, as files were often passed on to staff successors. This series also contains files related to task forces established by Coalition members to target appointed positions available within government agencies.
    Subseries B, Presidential Appointments Project (1988-1997), 1979-1997 (#318.12-323.10, E.11-E.12), contains form templates; accumulated material on possible nominees; informational notebook; meeting files; membership material; task force files and the final draft and supporting material (surveys, addendum, drafts, etc.) for the widely distributed 1988 report, Women in the Executive Branch in the Carter and Reagan Administrations 1977-1988. In 1988, the CWA began focusing more on appointing women to the federal level; the NWPC organized the Presidential Appointments Project (PAP) in response. Folders are arranged with general files (consisting of lists, correspondence, press releases, etc.) in rough chronological order, followed by several alphabetical groupings arranged chronologically thereunder.
    Subseries C, Women's Appointment Project (2000-2005), 2000-2001 (#323.11-324.7), consists of correspondence, press/media material, etc., generated by Karen Mulhauser, who coordinated day-to-day management and implementation activities of the Women's Appointment Project (WAP) for the NWPC through her consulting company, Mulhauser and Associates. In 2000, the NWPC and the National Council of Women's Organizations (NCWO) joined forces with a sponsoring partner, the Barbara Lee Family Foundation, to spearhead the 2001 Women's Appointments Project. It was a pro-choice, bi-partisan effort aimed to ensure qualified pro-choice women candidates were appointed to key positions in the first and second George W. Bush administrations.
    Subseries D, Judicial Appointments Project, 1971-1987 (#324.8-326.4), contains lists; correspondence; press releases; reports; information on appointee receptions given by the NWPC, including correspondence with honorees; files on nominees; and reference files. In 1977 the NWPC launched the Judicial Appointments Project, which worked closely with the Legal Support Caucus membership to push for women's appointments to state and federal courts. (Founded by feminist lawyers during the 1977 NWPC convention in San Jose, the Legal Support Caucus was renamed the Legal Support Committee in late 1978 to avoid name confusion with its parent organization; groups were organized within state caucuses to identify qualified applicants. It worked closely with the Judicial Appointments Project.) Aided by the passage of the Omnibus Judgeship Act (1978), the number of women in the federal judiciary jumped from five to forty-one by 1980. In 1985, the CWA and the Judicial Appointments Project appear to have combined. Several folders pre-date the founding of the project. Correspondence files also include memoranda and notes. Following several folders of general correspondence, the subseries is arranged alphabetically, and thereunder chronologically.
    Series XXVI, WOMEN'S APPOINTMENTS: CLOSED, 1971-2005 (#327CB-328CB, 329.1-346.12), contains closed material separated from Series XXV and divided into parallel subseries. This series includes contact/information cards on appointees; files accumulated by Marilyn Nejelski (Appointments Project Director, ca.1980-1986); judicial appointments material on the Supreme Court, state courts, and circuit courts; endorsement files on individuals; etc. Due to the large section of files identified as Nejelski's (in this and in the open series), it is possible that other unmarked files could be from her office, but not noted as such when received.
    Subseries A, Coalition for Women's Appointments (1976-1987): general: CLOSED, 1976-1986, 1990 (#327CB-328CB, 329.1-333.4), includes material related to the overall administration of the CWA, including proposals, memos, and committee notes, as well as contact cards used to manage biographical information on possible appointees. Subject files generated by Marilyn Nejelski are arranged alphabetically, using their original folder titles when appropriate; they contain correspondence, lists, resumes, etc.
    Subseries B, Presidential Appointments Project (1988-1998): CLOSED, 1988-1996 (#333.5-340.8), contains files on the Advisory Board, fundraising, membership, outreach, possible appointees' resumes, forms, appointee thank you letters, and task force information generated beginning in 1988, when the CWA began to focus more on women for federal-level appointments. The subseries is arranged alphabetically within chronologically groupings.
    Subseries C, Women's Appointment Project (2000-2005): CLOSED, 2000-2005 (#340.9-341.13), consists of WAP candidate biographical sheets, correspondence, task force member lists, etc., generated by Karen Mulhauser, and removed from Series XXV, Subseries C. The Women's Appointment Project (WAP) was established in 2000 as an initiative in which the NWPC and the National Council of Women's Organizations (NCWO) joined forces with a sponsoring partner, the Barbara Lee Family Foundation, to spearhead the 2001 Women's Appointments Project (WAP). It was a pro-choice, bi-partisan effort aimed at ensuring the appointment of qualified women candidates to key positions in the George W. Bush Administration. WAP became active again in 2004, gathering and screening resumes and submitting names to the re-elected President's staff for various appointments. The folders are arranged in rough chronological order, and thereunder alphabetically.
    Subseries D, Judicial Appointments Project. CLOSED, 1971-1984, 1999 (#342.1-346.12), contains the confidential records removed from Series XXV, Subseries D.. In 1977 the NWPC launched the Judicial Appointments Project, which worked closely with the Legal Support Caucus membership to push for women's appointments to state and federal courts. Aided by the passage of the Omnibus Judgeship Act (1978), the number of women in the federal judiciary jumped from five to forty-one by 1980. In 1985, the CWA and the Judicial Appointments Project appear to have combined.
    This subseries contains information on appointments for the circuit courts (arranged in numerical order by circuit), state courts (arranged alphabetically), the Supreme Court, and other United States courts, followed by correspondence and related material on possible appointees, arranged in rough chronological order. Folder headings are those of the NWPC.
    Series XXVII, POLITICAL PROGRAM: WOMEN'S ELECTION CENTRAL, 1974-1994 (#311.5-313.9, 372F+B.10), contains material gathered for a joint project of the National Women's Education Fund (NWEF), the Women's Campaign Fund (WCF), and the NWPC. The biennial project collected information on Congressional and statewide/state legislature races and disseminated results to the media. During the months prior to the election, state contacts profiled candidates on issues, and on election night provided voting results to the WEC headquarters. The NWEF collected the historical data for comparisons; the WCF gathered information on the women who had been identified as candidates; and the NWPC helped provide more detailed information and served as election night headquarters. All three groups were involved in press conferences and publicity; overall responsibility for coordination of activities revolved among them. In 1986, the Center for American Women in Politics (CAWP) agreed to serve as the key data gatherer, and to generate a computerized list to be used by the NWPC in its efforts to compile information on candidate's endorsement status by NWPC, whether candidate was a feminist, and previous offices held/other background. NWPC served as the press agent. The series is arranged with an overview of files and procedures first, followed by press releases, and then a chronological arrangement based on election years.
    Series XXVIII, PRESS AND PUBLIC INFORMATION, 1971-2004 (scattered) (#326.5-326.20, 347.1-360.12, FD.8, 378F+B.3-378F+B.6), contains the records of editors of the Women's Political Times (WPT) and of the press coordinators/directors of public information, as well as clipping files. It is divided into two subseries.
    Subseries A, Subject files, 1971-2004 (scattered) (#326.5-326.20, 347.1-354.19, FD.8, 378F+B.3-378F+B.6), contains the records of Women's Political Times (WPT) editors Sharon Flynn (1977-1979), Amy Schultz (1981-1983), Mary Houghton (1983-1985), and Jeannine Grenier (1985-1987), as well as of press coordinators/directors of public information Ellen Malcolm (1979-1981), Janyce Katz (1981-1983), Demetra Lambros (1983-1985), Jackie McGinnis (1985-1986), Jeannine Grenier (1986- June 1987), and Brenda Fraser (June 1987-?). Many files were created and used by several different editors, or directors of the variously named press/public relations/public information office.
    Folders contain correspondence, memos, press releases and speeches, testimony before government bodies, and some printed materials on issues, legislation, elections, politicians, and organizations of interest to the Caucus. Included are correspondence and memos from the Legislative Directors (including copies of letters to Congress on pending legislation), as well as letters forwarded to and from Caucus officers. The set of press releases (#351.17-352.13) appears to be incomplete; see also files on specific topics for additional releases. Following original file lists prepared by the press office (#326.5), the folders have been arranged alphabetically by the archivist; original folder titles have been retained, with information in square brackets provided by the archivist. Because the records have been heavily weeded to remove publications from mainstream media and organizations, those folders on the NWPC file inventory (#326.5) consisting only of such materials no longer exist. There are very few files after 1989. Handbooks produced by the NWPC about press and public relations are filed with the publications. Clippings about the NWPC are in Subseries B (#354.20-360.12).
    Subseries B, Clippings, 1971-2001 (#354.20-360.12), includes clippings from newspapers and magazines, as well as numerous photocopies of published articles by and about the NWPC, its officers, members, and staff. Although the overall arrangement is chronological, a few folders of clippings grouped by subject and covering more than one year are arranged alphabetically at the beginning of the series; other clippings grouped by subject for a single year are arranged within the larger chronology. Most articles of general interest (e.g., about the women's movement, or specific federal or state elections) that did not refer to the Caucus or those associated with it were discarded; articles about women's voting patterns were kept. The NWPC biennial conventions are covered extensively. Many of the clippings were provided to the Caucus by a clipping service; the archivist weeded multiple versions of the same wire service stories, while retaining those with headlines revealing different points of view. Other clippings are photocopies created by the office staff for distribution to the board, or for publicity files. Some clippings and photocopies were sent to the office by members. Original clippings have been photocopied. Although loose clippings duplicating items in folders were discarded, there is some remaining overlap and duplication among folders. Additional clippings may be found throughout the collection, filed as received with records of various offices.
    Series XXIX, PUBLICATIONS, 1971-2004 (#361.1-368.16, 373.1-374.34), contains brochures, leadership handbooks, organizing and campaign manuals, surveys, directories, Congressional voting records on women's issues, etc. "Catalog items" (#362.1-363.7) contain those publications, forms, guides, policies, etc., available for order from the national office. They first appeared in 1982(?), and were revised every few years. Originally filed in two runs of folders, each item had its own folder and given catalog number. Although two runs remain--one from the end of 1984 (#362.2-362.9), and the other from early 1990 (#362.10-363.7)--items have been grouped together within folders. Both sets include items from earlier years. Catalog listings note those items that were missing from the set; listings are filed in the first folder of their respective grouping. Included are information on the organizational structure of the NWPC, policies and procedures, forms, brochures, how-to manuals, and special reports. Many of these documents appear elsewhere in the collection.
    This series was created by the archivist from loose items found throughout; additional or duplicate publications (e.g., brochures, press packets, surveys, etc.) may occur elsewhere in the collection. Posters are listed with related papers in previous series (e.g., posters produced for conventions are listed in Series VII), and in Series XXX (Memorabilia and oversized). Materials in this series are open to researchers without written permission from the Caucus. An incomplete master set of duplicates is closed to research (#373.1-374.34). To use the NWPC Newsletter and Women's Political Times, as well as some duplicate publications that are also available in the Library's printed materials collection, consult the library catalog for holdings. An archival master set of newsletters (closed to research use) will be listed in the library catalog. Newsletters and other publications by state affiliates have been removed and have been cataloged separately (Pr-17). The series is arranged alphabetically by publication title.
    Series XXX. MEMORABILIA AND OVERSIZED, 1971-2003 (#FD.1-FD.9, 369FB-371FB, 372F+B.1-372F+B.13, 378F+B.1-378F+B.10m, OD.1-OD.2, SD.1, 376.1m-376.12m, 377F+B.1m-377F+B.10m, Mem.1-Mem.8), includes oversized items removed from or related to (and listed with) previous series, as well as tote bags, buttons, t-shirts, jewelry, and other memorabilia. It is divided into two subseries.
    Subseries B, Memorabilia, 1972-1996, n.d. (#376.1m-376.12m, 377F+B.1m-377F+B.10m, 378F+B.9m-378F+B.10m, Mem.1-Mem.8), includes tote bags, buttons, stickers, pins, necklaces, banners and pennants, an ash tray, an apron and other three-dimensional items produced or collected by NWPC. A few additional items (primarily bumper stickers, but also several other flat items) are listed in previous series. Buttons are arranged by general topic and listed alphabetically thereunder. Other memorabilia items are listed alphabetically. This subseries is OPEN TO RESEARCH without restriction.
    Subseries B, Oversized items, 1971-2003 (#FD.1-FD.9, 369FB-371FB, 372F+B.1-372F+B.13, 378F+B.1-378F+B.10m, OD.1-OD.2, SD.1), contains Caucus convention and political campaign posters, campaign newspapers and other literature, scrapbook pages, and other oversized items. Serving as the shelflist for oversized items listed previously, as well as oversized items removed from preceding series, it is arranged in groups by size. Most items are related to records in previous series, and are cross-referenced with those respective folders. Newsprint and non-newsprint campaign literature has been separated for preservation reasons.
    Series XXXI, PHOTOGRAPHS, 1972-2003 (#PD.1-PD.99) contains black and white and color photographs of NWPC staff, conventions, and other events. The photographs arrived in no order; many were loose or in unlabeled folders. They were sorted by volunteer Naomi McAnish, who initially weeded out those photographs that were duplicates, out of focus, or where the subject was unclear. Photographs selected for permanent retention were chosen by the following criteria: they showed individuals who played a significant role in the NWPC as officers or staff members; were of candidates supported by the Caucus; were of political figures, celebrities, and others who spoke at NWPC events or demonstrations; were recipients of NWPC awards; represented typical events or situations; had good composition; featured memorabilia and objects (i.e., buttons and jewelry, etc.) in other parts of the collection; and/or had good representation of an era (i.e., fashion, products, buildings, technology, etc.). This series is OPEN TO RESEARCH without restriction.
    The archivists refined the initial sorting. Selected photographs are now divided into the following groupings: named individuals (usually alone, but sometimes with others) and individuals grouped alphabetically by first initial of last name are filed first, followed by a rough chronological arrangement by year. Individuals with three or more photographs were assigned their own file (e.g., Harriett Woods), while those with fewer than three photographs were grouped by the first initial of their last name (e.g., individuals with last names beginning with "A" are together); neither the photographs nor the individuals in "named" files are necessarily more significant than those in the alphabetically grouped files. Files arranged chronologically include photographs of conventions and other meetings; social events (e.g., receptions and fundraisers, including award ceremonies); press conferences; and demonstrations. There are also a few folders of miscellaneous and unidentified photographs filed at the end of the series.
    Most of the photographs in this collection are or will be cataloged in VIA, Harvard University's Visual Information Access database. Others, referred to as "uncataloged" photographs, are not of sufficient research interest to warrant cataloging and are simply treated as part of the documents they accompany; they are marked on the back with an asterisk in square brackets [*].
    Additional material received as electronic files will be reformatted at some future date. NWPC's web site is being captured periodically as part of Harvard University Library's Web Archive Collection (WAX).

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