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MC 638; Vt-182

Fox, Sally. Collection of Sally Fox, 1575, 1667-2005 (inclusive), 1860-1929 (bulk): A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America

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Processing of this collection was made possible by gifts from the Radcliffe College Class of 1958 and from the Ardis B. James Fund.
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Cambridge, Mass.
October 2010

© 2010 President and Fellows of Harvard College

Updated April 2014

Descriptive Summary

Call No.: MC 638; Vt-182
Repository: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
Creator: Sally Fox
Title: Collection of Sally Fox, 1575,1667-2005 (inclusive), 1860-1929 (bulk)
Quantity: 18.81 linear ft. (7 + ½ file boxes, 8 folio boxes, 2 folio+ boxes, 1 oversize box, 1 supersize drawer) plus 1 videotape
Language of materials: Most materials in English and French. Some in German, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Dutch, Chinese, Czech, Hebrew, Greek, Russian, Swedish, Arabic.
Abstract: Collection of Sally Fox, independent picture researcher, editor, writer, and collector of visual images of women.

Processing Information:

Processed: October 2010. Updated: April 2014.
By: Marilyn Morgan.

Acquisition Information:

Accession numbers: 2005-M73, 2005-M106, 2006-M24, 2009-M30; folder 18.14 was added in April 2014.
The Sally Fox collection was acquired by the Schlesinger Library from Sally Fox in 2005 and her widower, Maurice Fox, in 2009. An additional folder was added in April 2014.

Access Restrictions:

Access. Unrestricted, except that #SD.1-SD.3 are closed to research use; researchers may use reference photocopies as noted. An appointment is required to use any audiovisual material.

Use Restrictions:

Copyright. Copyright in the collection created by Sally Fox is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright in other papers in the collection, including images, may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns. Images from the collection may not be published in any medium, or reproduced for any purpose without use of the preferred citation.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.

Preferred citation for publication:

Sally Fox Collection, 1575, 1667- 2005; item description, dates. MC 638, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

BIOGRAPHY

Artist and photograph editor Sally Fox was born Salomea Cherniavsky in Hollywood, California, in 1929. Her parents, professional musicians Josef and Lara Cherney, emigrated to the U.S. after the Russian civil war. Fox grew up in New York City and attended the prestigious High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts. After graduation (1947?) she obtained a B.A. in painting and art history from Queen's College (1950) and married Maurice Fox. The couple had three sons. While in New York, Fox worked as an assistant to the publicity director and librarian for the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Upon leaving MOMA she began work at the Archives of American Art. In 1962 Fox and her family left New York City and moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, then to Brookline, Massachusetts, where they lived for nearly twenty years. There, Fox did freelance photography for the Houghton Mifflin Company, then worked as the coordinator of picture research and picture editor (1970-1985).
Hoping to enrich the historical record, document women's actual experience, and challenge conventional notions of how women lived in the past, Fox dedicated her professional life to collecting images of women. She believed graphic imagery (drawing, painting, photography, sculpture, etc.) revealed more about the real-life experiences of women than written sources, which were traditionally written by and from the perspective of men. Her collection is especially strong in images from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which show women in various cultures engaged in sports and at work. While some of the images depict women doing traditional domestic work, others show women engaged in unexpected activities, such as ice sailing, mountaineering (in full Victorian dress), or practicing law. Fox began to share her findings through the publication of picture books, including The Medieval Woman: An Illuminated Book of Days (1985), which sold over 300,000 copies and was translated into eight languages; The Victorian Woman: a Book of Days (1987), and The Sporting Woman: A Book of Days (1989). A traveling exhibit drawn from her collection, The Sporting Woman: InSights from the Past, was displayed at museums and universities across the country during the 1990s.
Fox stood as a pioneer who helped gain recognition for the then-emerging profession of picture research and the necessity of incorporating images in historical research. Renowned for her diligence, skill, and commitment to mentoring young picture researchers just entering the profession, she was awarded the Ann Novotny Award for Original Picture Research by the American Society of Picture Professionals (1987). In 1993, she and her husband moved back to Cambridge and she continued to devote her time to searching for and collecting unique images of women, particularly women engaged in nontraditional activities or participating in sports. After battling lung cancer for over a year, Sally Fox died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on February 25, 2006.

ARRANGEMENT

The collection is arranged in ten series:

SCOPE AND CONTENT

The Sally Fox collection contains images of women in chromolithograph prints and posters, magazine covers, advertisements, trade cards, postcards, Victorian "scrap" (small, often intricate cut-outs of colored paper), pochoir prints, etchings, some photographs, and other ephemera, primarily from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Because Fox collected images of women in many cultures, the collection includes a great deal of material with captions, clippings, advertisements, notes, etc., written in languages other than English, the majority of them in French.
Fox had organized the bulk of the collection according to the activity depicted in each image. She designated predominantly two broad categories: women doing work (both domestic and outside the home) and engaged in sporting activity (including recreation, circus performance, and games). Some images depict women performing traditional domestic chores or engaged in genteel leisure activities within the home, while others show "new women" working in factories, practicing law, dressed in masculine attire, smoking, drinking, playing football, wrestling, boxing, or engaged in other activities not traditionally associated with women. For the most part, items of different sizes were found together; most trade cards and postcards were found in accordion files or three-ring binders, and research notes were found in cartons, ordered by source. For preservation reasons, the archivist physically arranged the items by size while retaining Fox's intellectual organization. The archivist also created most folder headings; original folder headings created by Fox appear in quotation marks. In addition to original images, the collection also includes annotated photocopies of images, research notes, some correspondence, and detailed notes about Fox's exhibit, The Sporting Woman: InSights from Her Past.
While the vast majority of images in this collection document women in nineteenth and early twentieth century Europe and the United States, Fox conducted research on women in antiquity through the twentieth century in Europe, Asia, the Americas, the Caribbean, Australia, and New Zealand. For the most part, the images that predate the nineteenth century are photocopies or photographs from museums, research institutions, or books. In rare instances, she was able to collect an original image or page of a book from earlier eras; these rarer items include a page from De la Cosmographie Universelle (1575) and a woodcut print illustrating the game of nine-pin bowling, designed by artist Jacques Stella and, after his death, etched by his niece Claudine Stella-Bouzonnet (1667). Dates in headings for Series II-X refer to original images only; folders containing copies and/or reproductions of images reflect dates of copied items, when known. Additional material was added to the collection in April 2014. The material is housed in #18.14. Folders are listed in intellectual, not numerical, order.
Series I, CORRESPONDENCE AND RESEARCH, ca.1928-2005 (#1.1-3.11), contains Fox's notes; annotated photocopies of articles, books, and manuscript materials; catalog pages with images of women; and some correspondence. It is divided into two subseries.
Subseries A, Correspondence and research: women and sports, ca.1928-2005 (#1.1-3.3), contains Fox's notes, annotated photocopies of images, and some correspondence about Fox's research of women and sport, including photographs or copies of images sent to her. It is likely that she used this research for the project The Sporting Woman: A Book of Days, as well as for the traveling exhibit that grew from the book.
In most cases, dates on folders provide the year that works were written or published (when known), or the year in which Fox created the notes or collected the images. In some instances, folder descriptions include dates for copies of images from earlier time periods, but the stated date span for the series overall reflects only research source dates, not image contents (e.g., a book published in 1982 may include images from 1812, but only the 1982 date would be reflected in the series date span). The majority of folders were found unlabeled. Each folder contained notes from one source or about one topic and the archivist maintained this arrangement, creating titles to reflect contents. Folder titles appearing in quotation marks were created by Fox. This subseries is arranged with folders of correspondence (#1.1-1.3) appearing first, followed by folders arranged alphabetically by work title or topic. Correspondence consists mostly of postcards and letters Fox received, although there are a few photocopies of her outgoing letters.
Subseries B, Research: other, 1982-2001, n.d. (#3.4-3.11, Vt-182.1), contains Fox's notes, copies of images, and some correspondence related to her work on Victorian women, modern women, and miscellaneous activities. It is arranged alphabetically.
Series II, EXHIBIT: THE SPORTING WOMAN: INSIGHTS FROM HER PAST, 1987-1997, n.d. (#3.12-4.13, 18.14, Vt-182.1), contains drafts of speeches, notes, photocopies, charts delineating items used, some transparencies or copies of images, text for exhibit panels, and publicity materials for The Sporting Woman: InSights from Her Past, which Fox curated. Consisting of images of women participating in various sporting activities from antiquity through the mid-twentieth century, the exhibit documented the types of games in which women competed, the costumes they wore, and team and individual sports. Fox hoped that the volume of images showing women participating in many different sports over centuries would challenge traditional associations of sport with masculinity. She also used the exhibit to demonstrate how women's participation in sport affected fashion in general. College campuses and organizations across the United States, including the Women's Sports Foundation in New York, displayed the traveling exhibit. The series is divided into two subseries.
Subseries A, Exhibit: text, remarks, and publicity, 1987-1997 (#3.12-3.19, 18.14, Vt-182.1), contains notes, captions, research used and a videotape. This subseries is arranged alphabetically.
Subseries B, Exhibit panels, 1990, n.d. (#3.20-4.13), contains notes, grids, photographs, etc., documenting the themes and layout of panels used in The Sporting Woman: InSights from Her Past. Folder titles in quotation marks reflect panel titles that were created by Fox to organize the exhibit thematically. While many of the items displayed came from Fox's personal collection, the exhibit also included items loaned to Fox by other institutions. This subseries includes charts listing panel topics; size of items; photographs, slides, and transparencies of loaned images; transparencies of items from Fox's personal collection; and notes about lending institution when applicable. With the exception of items in #3.20-3.21, images are not dated. This subseries is arranged alphabetically by panel title.
Series III, IMAGES: ART NOUVEAU, ca.1890-1914, n.d. (#4.14-4.15, 5FB.1-5FB.2, 6F+B.1, 16FB.1-16FB.2), contains advertisements, chromolithographs, pochoir prints, posters, and other ephemera that feature illustrations of women Fox designated as art nouveau in style; they are characterized by organic or plant-inspired motifs as well as ornately stylized, flowing curvilinear forms. This series also includes some pochoir prints (monochrome prints, colored by hand, using stencils) and several chromolithograph posters of the Maîtres de l'Affiche series, printed by Imprimerie Chaix for a limited time; plate numbers (PL) are listed when known. Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox and artists are listed on the folder titles when known. This series also contains one box of postcards, labels, and trade cards that Fox kept in a separate three-ring binder and labeled "art nouveau postcards and trade cards." Most postcards feature illustrations of women posed outdoors with flowers, in foreign cities, or playing instruments; a handful show women with airplanes, boats, or riding in carriages. Most were addressed and mailed and provide an interesting, if random, glimpse at travel correspondence. Some items created in the art nouveau style may be found in other series and can be searched using the browser's search feature. This series is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Series IV, IMAGES: ARTS AND HUMANITIES, 1801,1888-1911, n.d. (#4.16-4.21, 5FB.3-5FB.4, 6F+B.2, SD.1), contains sheet music, advertisements, pochoir prints, scrap, and chromolithograph posters (some from the Maîtres de l'Affiche series), which depict women dancing, singing, playing musical instruments, drawing, painting, reading or writing. Artists are listed on the folder titles when known. Multiple topics may be filed together in the same folder, though they are listed separately (i.e., #6F+B.2 contains dance, drawing and painting, music, and reading and writing). This series is divided into four subseries, arranged alphabetically by topic, thereunder according to size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries A, Dance, 1895-ca.1910, n.d. (#4.16, 5FB.3, 6F+B.2, SD.1), contains postcards, posters, and sheet music with illustrations that depict women performing various types of dance. Containers in this subseries are arranged by size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries B, Drawing and painting, 1801,1888-1893, n.d. (#4.17-4.18, 5FB.4, 7FB.1, 6F+B.2), contains etchings, postcards, clippings, posters, and copies of images depicting women drawing, painting, or engaged in similar fine arts. Containers are arranged according to size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries C, Music, 1896-1911 (#4.19-4.20, 5FB.5, 6F+B.2, 7FB.2, SD.1), contains fashion plate prints, postcards, clippings, posters, and copies of images depicting women playing a variety of musical instruments including the piano, harp, tambourine, drums, cello, and other string and woodwind instruments. Containers are arranged according to size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries D, Reading and writing, ca.1885-1913 (#4.21, 5FB.4, 6F+B.2), contains postcards, pochoir prints, chromolithographs, and posters depicting women reading or writing. It is arranged according to container size, from smaller to larger.
Series V, IMAGES: WORK, 1575,1780,1802,ca.1840-1944 (scattered) (#4.22-5.4, 5FB.6-5FB.8, 6F+B.3-6F+B.6, 7FB.3-7FB.12, 8OB.1, SD.1), contains engravings, original prints and reproductions, pamphlets, clippings of illustrations, chromolithograph posters, etc., which depict women engaged in various forms of domestic work as well as work outside the home. Artists are listed on the folder titles when known. Multiple topics may be filed together in the same folder, though they are listed separately (i.e., #5FB.6 contains cooking, cleaning, miscellaneous, textiles, brick making; #5FB.7 contains field and plantation work, fish preparation; #5FB.8 contains open-air markets and selling foodstuff, garment and dressmaking; #6F+B.3 contains laundry, textiles; #6F+B.4 contains artisan work, education and teaching, and factories; #6F+B.5 contains field and plantation work, fish preparation, and nursing; #8OB.1 contains laundry, textile, factories, field and plantation work, and other). This series divided into two subseries.
Subseries A, Domestic work, ca.1840-1933 (#4.22-4.24, 5FB.6, 6F+B.3, 7FB.3, 8OB.1), contains engravings, prints, clippings of illustrations, and posters that depict women engaged in various domestic chores including cooking, cleaning, laundry, and weaving. It is arranged alphabetically by topic and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries B, Work outside the home, 1575, 1780, 1802, 1851-1931, 1944 (#4.25-4.27, 5FB.6-5FB.8, 6F+B.4-6F+B.6, 7FB.5-7FB.12, 8OB.1, 9.1-9.4, SD.1, SD.3), contains illustrations, clippings, postcards, and posters depicting women performing various types of work outside the home including in artisan studios, factories, fields and plantations, preparing fish, teaching, nursing, office work, selling wares in markets, and making textiles. Many of the postcards were used as correspondence. This subseries includes posters created by the YWCA united war work campaign, during World War I, depicting women working in various trades. It is arranged alphabetically by work topic and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger.
Series VI, IMAGES: NONTRADITIONAL WOMEN, MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS, AND FASHION, 1870-ca.1945, 1958, n.d. (#5FB.9-5FB.10, 6F+B.6-6F+B.7, 7FB.13, 9.5-9.18, SD.2, SD.3), contains posters, chromolithographs, postcards, and illustrated covers of periodicals that depict women in roles considered nontraditional for nineteenth and early-twentieth century women. Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox. Artists are listed on the folder titles when known. Multiple topics may be filed together in the same folder, though they are listed separately (i.e., #5FB.10 contains "other," as well as "miscellaneous," advertisements). This series is divided into two subseries.
Subseries A, Other. Nontraditional, "symbolic," and "extraordinary" women, ca.1880-ca.1925, n.d. (#5FB.9-5FB.10, 6F+B.6, 7FB.13, 9.5-9.12, SD.2, SD.3), contains posters, chromolithographs, postcards, and illustrated covers of journals and penny novels that depict women engaged in behavior or activities not typically associated with nineteenth and early-twentieth century women (e.g., smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, dressed in masculine clothing, or shunning domestic work). It also contains images of women symbolizing technology and women Fox labeled "extraordinary"; these include caricatures of women in the future, pioneering pilots, explorers, or others she felt were ahead of their time. Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox. Artists are listed on the folder titles when known. This subseries is arranged alphabetically by topic and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries B, Miscellaneous fashion and advertisements, 1870-1958 (scattered), n.d. (#5FB.10, 6F+B.7, 9.13-9.18, SD.3), contains primarily prints made from engraved fashion plates and some clippings of miscellaneous advertisements. The majority of prints are from "Costumes de Paris à travers les siècles" and depict pre-nineteenth-century fashions. This subseries does not include all fashion prints. Pochoir prints of fashion plates are scattered throughout the collection, according to subject or activity depicted in the print, and can be searched using the browser's search feature. This subseries also includes random advertisements and clippings that Fox had saved but not categorized. It is arranged alphabetically by topic and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger.
Series VII, IMAGES: NATIVE PEOPLES OF AFRICA, ASIA, THE CARIBBEAN, AND NEW ZEALAND, 1833-1950 (scattered), n.d. (#5FB.11-5FB.14, 6F+B.8-6F+B.9, 7FB.14-7FB.15, 9.19), contains postcards, wood block prints, and posters of Asian women engaged in predominantly domestic work, as well as images of native peoples of Africa, the Caribbean, and New Zealand, primarily working in fields. Although images of women of Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean appear elsewhere in the collection (e.g, #15FB.3), Fox kept these prints separately and the archivist has retained that distinction. Many folders contain captions, clippings, poster titles, etc., in languages other than English; these are listed at the end of the folder description. Multiple topics may be filed together in the same folder, though they are listed separately (i.e., #6F+B.9 contains Japanese women and other Asian women). This series is divided into three subseries.
Subseries A, Japanese women, 1833-1950 (scattered), n.d. (#5FB11-5FB.13, 6F+B.8-6F+B.9, 7FB.14), contains predominantly wood block prints created by well-known Japanese artists, primarily during the Meiji Period (1868-1912). Many of the prints are original but some were likely printed from recarved blocks at a later time. Some images are accompanied by notes by Fox; some are accompanied by captions and catalogs in Japanese. This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries B, Other Asian women, n.d. (#6F+B.9, 7FB.15), contains prints and lithographs of Asian women, primarily Chinese women engaged in various activities. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries C, Images: Women of Africa, the Caribbean, and New Zealand, 1869-1878 (#9.19, 5FB.14), contains clippings of illustrations of women, including slaves, working and caring for the sick. It is arranged by container size from smaller to larger.
Series VIII, IMAGES: SPORT AND RECREATION, 1667, 1851-1993 (scattered) (#8OB.2-8OB.5, 9.20-9.45, 10FB.1-10FB.15, 11FB.1-11FB.12, 12F+B.1-12F+B.11, 13.1-13.24, 14FB.1-14FB.10, SD.2, SD.3), contains postcards, trade cards, pochoir prints, photographs, posters, illustrations from periodicals, copies of images, etc., of women engaged in various sports and recreational activities. Fox often attached small sticky notes to images; the information from short notes was transferred onto the verso of the image; more substantial notes were retained in mylar pockets adjacent to the image itself. Many folders contain captions, clippings, poster titles, etc., in languages other than English; these are listed at the end of the folder description. Prints, posters, trade cards, etc., are original with the following exceptions: folders titled "copies of images" contain research photocopies and folder descriptions with "poster facsimile" are modern reproductions of posters as noted (some posters in #SD.2). Multiple topics may be filed together in the same folder, though they are listed separately (i.e., #8OB.2 contains archery and bicycling; #8OB.3 contains billiards, equestrian, games and recreation, and mountain climbing; #8OB.5 contains shooting and tennis; #11.FB.1 contains fishing and archery, #11FB.3 contains aviation and bicycling; #11FB.4 contains boating and bowling; #11FB.7 contains games and recreation, golf, and gymnastics; #11FB.8 contains other/multiple sports, mountain climbing, shooting; #11FB.12 contains tennis and track and field; #12F+B.1 contains archery, automobiling, aviation, and fishing; #12F+B.2 contains baseball, basketball, and bicycling; #12F+B.4 contains bowling and croquet; #12F+B.8 contains football, golf, gymnastics, and hockey; #12F+B.9 contains mountain climbing, other/multiple sports, and shooting; #12F+B.10 contains skating, skiing/winter sports, and swimming; #12F+B.11 contains tennis and track and field). This subseries is divided into twenty-eight subseries, arranged alphabetically by topic and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries A, Archery, 1870-1885, n.d. (#8OB.2, 9.20, 10FB.1, 11FB.1, 12F+B.1), contains trade cards, greeting cards, and color illustrations from periodicals depicting women practicing at archery. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries B, Automobiling and motorcycling, 1894-1932, n.d. (#9.21-9.22, 10FB.2, 11FB.2, 12F+B.1, SD.2), includes images of women driving automobiles or motorcycles, or featured in advertisements for cars. While the majority of the materials are original, one poster in #SD.2 is a facsimile as noted. This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries C, Aviation and hot air ballooning, 1851-1888, 1900, 1910-1937, n.d. (#9.23, 10FB.3, 11FB.3, 12F+B.1, SD.2), contains postcards, magazine illustrations, and miscellaneous images of aviators. It also contains an entire issue of Femina, which includes an article and photographs on aviator Mme. Franck as well as illustrations and photographs of women engaged in other sporting activities (e.g., swimming and running). This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries D, Baseball, 1890-1954, 1989 (#9.24-9.25, 12F+B.2), contains images, primarily postcards and trading cards, of women's baseball teams or women playing baseball. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries E, Basketball, 1896-1924, 1995 (#9.26-9.27, 10FB.4, 12F+B.2, SD.2), contains postcards, advertisements, posters, etc., of women playing basketball. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries F, Bicycling, ca.1860-1923, (#8OB.2, 9.28-9.30, 10FB.5, 11FB.3, 12F+B.2, SD.2), contains postcards, trade cards, prints, dance cards, posters, etc., depicting women bicycling. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries G, Billiards, 1900, 1915-1921 (#8OB.3, 9.31-9.32), contains images depicting women playing pool. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries H, Boating, 1880-ca.1920, 1992 (#9.33-9.34, 10FB.6, 11FB.4, 12F+B.3, SD.2), contains postcards, research, notes, calendar pages, and miscellaneous images of women rowing or boating. Many of the postcards were used as correspondence; Fox acquired them from collectors, antique book dealers, or auction houses. This subseries contains entire issues of Figaro Illustré and Woman's Home Companion; though the covers of these journals depict women boating, the contents include many illustrations, photographs, and advertisements of women engaged in other sporting activities, including horseback riding and golf. This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries I, Bowling, 1667, 1869-1898 (#9.35-9.36, 10FB.7, 11FB.4, 12F+B.4), contains clippings, notes, illustration and prints of women bowling. It includes a rare print of the game of nine-pin, designed by Jacques Stella and etched by his niece, Claudine Stella-Bouzonnet, after his death as part of a series of pastoral prints. This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries J, Boxing and wrestling, ca.1890, n.d. (#9.37, 10FB.8), contains images of women boxing or wrestling. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries K, Circus performers, 1850-1904 (scattered) (#9.38, 10FB.9, 11.FB.5, 12F+B.5, SD.2, SD.3), contains postcards, scrap, clippings, and posters showing women taming lions, performing on trapezes, juggling, training animals, or engaged in other activity associated with circus performance. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries L, Croquet and lawn sports, 1867-1913 (scattered) (#9.39-9.40, 10FB.10, 12F+B.4), contains images showing women playing croquet. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries M, Equestrian, 1825-1927 (scattered), n.d. (#8OB.3, 9.41-9.42, 10FB.11, 11FB.6), contains images showing women on riding horses, including hunting on horseback, and playing polo. It is arranged by container size from smaller to larger.
Subseries N, Fencing, 1880-1906, n.d. (#10FB.12, 12F+B.7, 13.1), contains images of women practicing fencing. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries O, Fishing, 1874-1993 (scattered), n.d. (#9.43-9.45, 10FB.13, 11FB.1, 12F+B.1), contains booklets, postcards, trade cards, labels, scrap, posters, calendars, etc., of women or girls fishing. It is arranged by container size from smaller to larger.
Subseries. P, Football, 1895-1899, 1906, n.d. (#10FB.14, 12F+B.8), contains images of women playing football. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries Q, Games and recreation, ca.1890, 1902, n.d. (#8OB.3, 11FB.7, 13.2), contains etchings, chromolithograph prints, cigarette box covers, and poster reproductions of images of women playing chess; gambling; and outdoors, swinging on swings. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries R, Golf, 1896-1928 (#10FB.15, 11FB.7, 12F+B.8, 13.3-13.4), contains images of women playing golf. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries S, Gymnastics, acrobatics, and gymnasium exercises, ca.1850-1932 (scattered) (#11FB.7, 12F+B.8, 13.5-13.7, 14FB.1), contains illustrations, prints, and clippings of women doing acrobatics, gymnastics, or gymnasium exercises with dumbbells, etc. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries T, Hockey, 1902-1924 (#12F+B.8, 13.8, 14FB.2), contains images of women playing hockey. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries U, Mountain climbing, 1889-1919 (#8OB.3, 11FB.8, 12F+B.9, 13.9, 14FB.3), contains images of women hiking, scaling rocks, or climbing mountains. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries V, Other sports and recreation, multiple sports, 1870-1925 (#8OB.4, 11FB.8, 12F+B.9, 13.10-13.11, 14FB.4), contains illustrations, covers of periodicals and sheet music, postcards, labels, clippings, etc., of women engaged in miscellaneous sports/activities as well as multiple sports on one image. It includes bullfighting, lassoing, diabolo, etc. It also includes posters for the Sunday World illustrated by Dan Smith in the 1920s. It is arranged by container size from smaller to larger.
Subseries W, Shooting, 1860-1934 (#8OB.5, 11FB.8, 12F+B.9, 13.12-13.14, 14FB.5), contains images of women shooting targets with rifles, aiming guns, fox hunting, or carrying shotguns while hunting game on foot. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries X, Skating, 1881-1931, n.d. (#11FB.9, 12F+B.10, 13.15-13.16, 14FB.6), contains images of women roller skating, ice skating, playing ice hockey, or ice sailing. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries Y, Skiing, sledding, and miscellaneous winter activities, 1871-1929 (#11FB.10, 12F+B.10, 13.17-13.18, 14FB.7), contains images of winter sports such as skiing, sledding, snowshoeing, and throwing snowballs. Fox arranged images of ice skating with roller skating in the category "skating" (see Subseries X). This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries Z, Swimming, 1886-1932 (#11FB.11, 12F+B.10, 13.19-13.21, 14FB.8, SD.2), contains postcards, trade cards, cigarette cards, prints, posters, etc., with images of women swimming, water skiing, or dressed in bathing suits at the beach, as well as advertisements for women's swimsuits. This subseries is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries AA, Tennis and racquet sports, 1830-1924 (#8OB.5, 11FB.12, 12F+B.11, 13.22-13.23, 14FB.9), contains images of women playing tennis. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Subseries BB, Track and field, 1903-1936 (#11FB.12, 12F+B.11, 13.24, 14FB.10), contains images of women running, jumping, or doing other track and field activities. It is arranged by container size, from smaller to larger.
Series IX, CALENDARS, POSTCARDS, TRADE CARDS, MENUS, AND EPHEMERA, ca.1850-1984, n.d. (#5FB.16, 6F+B.10, 13.25-13.36, 15FB.1-17FB.6, 18.1-18.11, 19CB), contains calendars, postcards, trade cards, menus, Victorian paper scrap and other ephemera with illustrations of women. It is divided into four subseries.
Subseries A, Trade cards and postcards, ca.1867-1915, n.d. (#15FB.1-17FB.2), contains trade cards, postcards, cigarette cards, cigar box labels, advertisements, and other ephemera, found in three-ring binders labeled "trade cards" by Fox. Cards are illustrated on the front and depict women primarily in domestic scenes or working; they advertise products including hand soaps, laundry soaps, chocolates, beauty products, pickles, thread, mince meat, organs, stoves, soup, medicinal tonics and remedies, corsets, coffee, tea, coffee substitutes, and sewing machines.
Though Fox collected the postcards for images, the majority were also used as correspondence and provide an interesting, if random, glimpse at travel correspondence. Many postcards were written in languages other than English; these are listed at the end of the folder description. Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox. Additional trade cards and postcards are scattered throughout the collection and may be located by using the browser's search feature.
Subseries B, "Scrap" and poster stamps, ca.1870-ca.1940 (#5FB.15, 17FB.3-17FB.6), contains embossed reliefs, chromolithographs, or die cuts of small paper images, as well as a few trade cards, and poster stamps, found in a three-ring binder labeled "scrap" by Fox. First appearing around 1840 with the advent of chromolithography, "scrap" (intricately cut-out pieces of printed paper) was printed in very rich colors and depicted a variety of images, themes, and subjects in great detail. Some scrap illustrated exotic flowers and foliage or showed children playing, while others portrayed women engaged in various activities. As new pieces were printed regularly, scrap collecting became a popular hobby for many Victorian women and children. Collectors saved pieces in what became known as scrap books; they also used scrap to decorate holiday cards, and valentines, and to illustrate popular events. Fox was especially interested in scrap that documented the range of women's activities. Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox..
Subseries C, Calendars and menus, 1880-1931, 1984 (#5FB.16, 6F+B.10, 13.25-13.36) (#6F+B.10, 13.25-13.26), contains calendars or calendar pages (hand watercolored pages and mass-produced) and daily menu sheets Fox collected from various restaurants, primarily in France. Fox kept these calendars together; a few posters with small calendar pages attached are scattered throughout the collection and may be located by using the browser's search feature. Most of the menus contain unique images, individually drawn or watercolored. Some appear with handwritten daily meals but the majority are blank, collected for the striking images displayed. Menu cards were often printed for manufacturers of champagne and spirits, chocolates, or other culinary products and given to restaurants to use as a means of advertising products. This subseries is arranged alphabetically and thereunder by container size, from smaller to larger. Menus are arranged chronologically within size groupings, with undated and blank menus arranged alphabetically by manufacturer.
Subseries D, Reproduced images: postcards and cards, ca.1850-1935 (#18.1-18.11, 19CB), contains images of women created in previous centuries reproduced by museums or other companies onto postcards or cards for retail. The stated date span for the subseries reflects the date of the works' creation when known; dates of some folder titles may reflect a broad generalized estimate (e.g., pre-nineteenth century). This subseries is arranged with nineteenth- and twentieth-century images appearing first in #18.1-18.8, arranged by topic and thereunder chronologically. Color reference copies of supersized (larger than 20 x 24) posters from SD.1-SD.3 are in #18.9. Postcards depicting women from antiquity through the eighteenth century appear last in #18.10-18.11, and 19CB. Items in #19CB (a card file box) are organized loosely by topic.
Series X, SLIDES, TRANSPARENCIES, AND NEGATIVES, ca.1820, 1870-1922 (#18.12sl-20.2sl, 20.3tr-20.5tr), contains primarily transparencies, slides, and some negatives created for use in Fox's exhibitions or books. Items in this series are made from original images found in Fox's collection; they are not cataloged in VIA. Other transparencies, slides, and negatives clearly documenting Fox's The Sporting Woman: InSights from Her Past are located in Series II (#3.20-4.13). Folder titles in quotation marks were created by Fox. This subseries is arranged according to type (slides and transparencies) and thereunder alphabetically.
Original images in this collection are or will be cataloged in VIA, Harvard University's Visual Information Access database. Other images, referred to as "uncataloged" photographs (marked, on the back with an asterisk in square brackets [*]), transparencies, slides, or negatives, are research copies of original items most of which are not found in this collection, and thus will not be cataloged.

INVENTORY

Additional catalog entries

The following catalog entries represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. An entry for each appears in the Harvard On Line Library Information System (HOLLIS) and other automated bibliographic databases. THIS IS NOT AN INDEX.

Authors

Subjects

SEPARATION RECORD

Donors: Sally Fox, Maurice Fox
Accession number: MC 638
Processed by: Marilyn Morgan
The following items have been removed from the collection and transferred to the Schlesinger Library Books and Printed Materials Division:

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