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© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Call No.: MC 530
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Margaret Dunkle
Title: Papers of Margaret Dunkle, 1957-1993
Quantity: 49 linear feet (117 + 1/2 file boxes) plus 1 oversize folder, 1 photograph folder)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Papers of Margaret Dunkle, advocate for women's equality in sports, education, and the delivery of health services.
Margaret Claire Dunkle, daughter of Maurice Albert and Hannah Margaret Dunkle, was born in 1947, in Maryland. She received her B.A. from Syracuse University in 1969. She was a research assistant at Tufts University and a research associate at Bio-Dynamics, Inc. (1969-1971); associate director of the Project on the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges (1972-1977); special assistant in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Legislation, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1977-1979); consultant (1979-1982); project director for the Health Equity Project (1980-1982); partner in Brown & Dunkle (1982-1985); executive director and founder of The Equality Center (1982-1990); director of the American Association of University Women Educational Fund (1990-1991); and director of policy exchange at the Institute for Educational Leadership (1991). She was also co-founder and the first chairman of the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education (1975-1977). She was a member of the Federal Organizations for Professional Women (national president, 1979-1980), the American Educational Research Association (recipient of the Activist and Policy Award, 1990), the National Council for Research on Women (board of directors, 1991-1992), the National Society of Fund Raising Executives, and the Girard St. Association (co-founder and coordinator, 1981-1993). She was the author of Competitive Athletics: In Search of Equal Opportunity (1977) and Just What the Doctor Should Have Ordered: A Prescription for Sex-Fair School Health Services (1989), and the co-author of Exploitation from 9 to 5: Report of the Twentieth Century Task Force on Women and Employment (1975) and Mobility in the Marketplace: Case Studies of Programs, Policies and Practices That Provide Working Women with Career Mobility (1981). She contributed to Women's Centers--Where Are They? (1974), and wrote chapters and articles for numerous books and journals.
The collection is arranged in eleven series:
- Series I. Biographical and general professional
- Series II. Title IX
- ___Subseries A. General
- ___Subseries B. Sports files
- ___Subseries C. Sports reports, guidelines, etc.
- ___Subseries D. Athletic letters of finding
- Series III. National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education (NCWGE)
- Series IV. Competitive Athletics: In Search of Equal Opportunity
- Series V. Title IX project (The Equality Center)
- ___Subseries A. Athletics and Title IX project files
- ___Subseries B. Title IX guidelines
- ___Subseries C. Title IX draft
- Series VI. Women's centers study ( Women's Centers--Where Are They? )
- ___Subseries A. Women's centers study
- ___Subseries B. Women's centers on campus
- Series VII. National Commission on Working Women (NCWW) mobility study ( Mobility in the Marketplace: Case Studies of Programs, Policies and Practices that Provide Working Women with Career Mobility )
- ___Subseries A. Materials used
- ___Subseries B. Programs not included
- Series VIII. Federation of Organizations for Professional Women (FOPW)
- Series IX. Legislative regulations
- Series X. Sex equity in student health services project
- Series XI. General research files
- ___Subseries A. General information on women
- ___Subseries B. Disciplines and professions
- ___Subseries C. Education
- ___Subseries D. Employment
The collection contains correspondence, reports, minutes, notes, questionnaires, drafts, interviews, etc. While the arrangement of files within series and subseries was created by Margaret Dunkle, the archivist determined the series and subseries order. Clippings from major newspapers were weeded from the collection before it arrived at the library. Folder titles were created by Dunkle; additional information provided by the archivist appears in square brackets.Series I, Biographical and general professional (#1.1-1.10), includes a resume, and a small number of articles, speeches, etc., by Dunkle. Also included are files documenting Dunkle's involvement with the Project for the Status and Education of Women (PSEW) of the Association of American Colleges, the Coalition on the Appointment of Women, the National Advisory Council on Women's Education Programs, and the Project on Equal Education Rights (PEER) of the National Organization for Women Legal Defense and Education Fund (NOW LDEF). Files contain correspondence, reports, minutes, agendas, notes, etc.Series II, Title IX (#1.11-62.13, PD.1), contains correspondence, notes, reports, guidelines, photocopies of letters of finding from the Office for Civil Rights, drafts of reports, etc., relating to Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, which banned sex discrimination in schools in both academics and athletics. It is arranged in four subseries.Subseries A, General (#1.11-22.5), contains correspondence, notes, court documents, legislative regulations, etc., relating to various Title IX rulings and their effects on different types of organizations. It is arranged alphabetically, with general files first.Subseries B, Sports files (#22.6-31.12, PD.1), contains correspondence, notes, clippings, printed material, etc., relating to the involvement of women and girls in sports and to the organizations governing sports at all levels. Materials emphasize issues surrounding women's sports teams at colleges and universities and the battle between the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) over which organization should govern women's collegiate athletics. Files are arranged alphabetically, with general files first.Subseries C, Sports reports, guidelines, etc. (#31.13-56.9), contains materials produced by colleges and universities, sports governing bodies, government agencies, etc., detailing efforts to adapt to Title IX regulations. Files are arranged alphabetically.Subseries D, Athletic letters of finding (#56.10-62.13), contains photocopies of letters Dunkle requested from the U.S. Office for Civil Rights detailing their investigations into Title IX compliance at colleges and universities as well as at secondary schools. Files are arranged alphabetically by school name within the regions assigned to schools by the Office for Civil Rights.Series III, National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education (NCWGE) (#62.14-72.7), contains minutes, memos, mailings, financial records, etc., documenting Dunkle's tenure as chairperson. A nonprofit organization of more than 50 organizations dedicated to improving educational opportunities for girls and women, NCWGE's mission was to provide leadership in and advocate for the development of national education policies that benefit all women and girls. Files are arranged alphabetically.Series IV, Competitive Athletics: In Search of Equal Opportunity (#72.8-75.3), contains correspondence, drafts, and research files. The report, written by Dunkle with the assistance of Margot Polivy and Bernice Sandler, was prepared for the Women's Program staff of the United States Department of Education and published by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). It was intended as a guide to Title IX compliance for colleges and universities, but HEW Secretary Joseph A. Califano, Jr., distanced the department from the report by claiming it did not reflect the views of HEW, but rather those of the people contracted to write it. Materials in the series document the creation of the report through drafts and research materials such as notes, fact sheets, and copies of HEW correspondence. There is also some material documenting responses to the published report. Files are arranged with general materials first, followed by research materials correlating to sections of the report, drafts, follow up materials, and documents to be filed.Series V, Title IX project (The Equality Center) (#75.4-88.14), contains correspondence, drafts, interviews, fact sheets, etc., relating to Title IX compliance guidelines and an unpublished history of Title IX created by the Equality Center with funding from the U.S. Department of Education. The Equality Center was a nonprofit organization that worked to advance human and civil rights by addressing issues of importance to low-income families and individuals, particularly women, minorities, the disabled, and the elderly. The Center sought to accomplish its goals through research and analysis; education, training, and technical assistance; and monitoring the development and implementation of public policy. The series is arranged in three subseries.Subseries A, Athletics and Title IX project files (#75.4-77.19), includes correspondence, interviews, fact sheets, etc., relating mainly to the creation of a practical Title IX compliance guide. The correspondence includes several exchanges assessing drafts of the guidelines. There is also correspondence between Dunkle and the University of Maryland at College Park and at Eastern Shore discussing Title IX compliance at the university. Interviews in this series include several with people connected with the University of Maryland discussing the status of women athletes at the university. There are also interviews with individuals, including government officials and representatives of women's groups, involved in the passage of early Title IX legislation. Files are arranged alphabetically, with general files first.Subseries B, Title IX guidelines (#78.1-80.10), includes drafts and background materials used to produce a practical guide to Title IX compliance in intercollegiate athletics. Files are arranged alphabetically.Subseries C, Title IX draft (#80.11-88.14), includes drafts of the unpublished history of Title IX as well as correspondence and contracts with the women hired by the Equality Center to write it. General files are arranged first, followed by drafts arranged by chapter.Series VI, Women's centers study (Women's Centers--Where Are They?) (#89.1-92.12, OD.1), includes correspondence, drafts, questionnaires, background materials, etc., relating to Women's Centers--Where Are They?, prepared by the Association of American Colleges' Project on the Status and Education of Women. The report explored how women's centers were organized and what kinds of services they provided. The project included the creation of a directory of women's centers. The series is arranged in two subseries.Subseries A, Women's centers study (#89.1-90.3, OD.1), includes correspondence, drafts, background materials, etc., relating to the research and writing of the report on women's centers. Files are arranged alphabetically.Subseries B, Women's centers on campus (#90.4-92.12), contains questionnaires completed by women's centers on college campus providing the name of the center, its university affiliation, contact person, and a description of the types of services it provides. Some files include printed material created by the women's centers. Files are arranged in a numbered filing system created by the project staff.Series VII, National Commission on Working Women (NCWW) mobility study (Mobility in the Marketplace: Case Studies of Programs, Policies and Practices that Provide Working Women with Career Mobility) (#92.13-100.7), contains correspondence, notes, drafts, and research materials, including printed material from organizations examined in the study. Written by Margaret Dunkle with the assistance of Margaret Olney, Mobility in the Marketplace: Case Studies of Programs, Policies and Practices that Provide Working Women with Career Mobility, examined workplace programs, policies, and practices that increased the opportunities of working women to undertake further education and training and provide them with career mobility. The series is arranged in two subseries.Subseries A, Programs used (#92.13-98.3), contains correspondence, notes, drafts, and research materials used to write the report. Files are arranged alphabetically, with general files first.Subseries B, Programs not used (#98.4-100.7), contains correspondence and research materials concerning opportunities for advancement at organizations that were not used in the report. Files are arranged alphabetically by organization name, with general files first.Series VIII, Federation of Organizations for Professional Women (FOPW) (#100.8-103.11), includes correspondence, reports, notes, by-laws, printed material, etc. The Federation was a national association of 104 affiliated organizations committed to attaining equal opportunity for women in education and employment. It was founded in 1972 under the leadership of the American Association of University Women, the Association of Women in Science, and Graduate Women in Science to provide a mechanism for increasing women's professional status and to improve the impact of public policy on women. The Federation represented women's concerns to national policy makers; encouraged network building and information exchange through annual meetings and participation in coalitions; and helped affiliates raise money through the sale of stamps commemorating women. They also sponsored the development of the Center for Research on Women and Higher Education and the Professions at Wellesley College and the International Center for Research on Women in Washington, D.C. Almost all of the materials in this series are from 1979-1980, when Dunkle was President of the Foundation. Correspondence files contain internal memos and exchanges with outside individuals and organizations, which often contain copies of reports, testimonies, minutes, and publications. Files are arranged alphabetically.Series IX, Legislative regulations (#103.12-107.12), contains fact sheets, notes, correspondence, printed materials, etc., relating to legislation affecting women. While the regulations cover a wide range of topics, the focus of the series is on women in sports and women's health. Files are arranged alphabetically.Series X, Sex Equity in Student Health Services project (#108.1-110.15), contains correspondence, notes, fact sheets, copies of laws, etc., compiled as part of a comprehensive examination of sex discrimination in health services and health insurance offered by schools and colleges. The project, administered by the Health Equity Project, examined state and local laws that prohibit sex discrimination in health services, health insurance, and health facilities. The project also included a comprehensive examination of Title IX and health services for women and girls in schools and colleges. The project resulted in the publication of Sex Equity in Student Health Services. Files are arranged alphabetically.Series XI, General research files (#110.16-118.9), includes correspondence, notes, testimonies, printed material, etc., relating to topics affecting women including equal employment issues, the representation of women in the media, women's representation in various professional fields, etc. It is arranged in four subseries.Subseries A, General information on women (#110.16-112.7), includes correspondence, notes, clippings, printed material, etc., relating to topics such as the representation of women in the media, aging, men's liberation groups, etc. Most of the printed material consists of newsletters and flyers created by small, grass-roots organizations. Folders are arranged alphabetically.Subseries B, Disciplines and professions (#112.8-114.7), includes correspondence, notes, clippings, printed material, etc., relating to the representation of women in traditional professions as well as unconventional careers. Much of the printed material was generated by male dominated professional groups and organizations attempting to appeal to potential female employees. Particularly well documented are the efforts made by the United States Armed Forces to recruit women in the late 1960s. Folders are arranged alphabetically.Subseries C, Education (#114.8-117.5), includes correspondence, notes, legislative rulings, printed materials, etc., relating to topics such as coeducational programs, career education, and vocational education. Files document attempts by legislatures and educational institutions to provide equal opportunities for girls and women at all levels of education. Folders are arranged alphabetically.Subseries D, Employment (#117.6-118.9), includes correspondence, notes, testimonies, printed material, etc., relating to workplace issues such as affirmative action, nepotism, equal opportunities for employment, etc. Files are arranged alphabetically.