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MC 280

Kirchwey, Freda. Papers of Freda Kirchwey, 1871-1972: A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

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Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

© President and Fellows of Harvard College


The papers of Freda Kirchwey were processed under a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (RC-24669-76-987). Processing of addenda in 2016 was made possible by gifts from the Alice Jeannette Ward Fund and the Class of 1968 Archival Processing Fund.

Descriptive Summary

Location: Collection stored off site: researchers must request access 36 hours before use.
Call No.: MC 280
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Freda Kirchwey
Title: Papers of Freda Kirchwey, 1871-1972
Date(s): 1871-1972
Quantity: 13.55 linear feet (32 file boxes, 1 half file box) plus 1 folio folder, 4 folio+ folders, 2 oversize folders, 19 photograph folders, 3 folio photograph folders, 2 folio+ photograph folders, 1 reel microfilm)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Correspondence, diaries, speeches, etc., of Freda Kirchwey, journalist, editor, and publisher of the Nation.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Accession numbers: 878, 69-30, 72-109, 73-39, 73-46, 73-78, 73-89, 74-193, 77-M140, 80-M210, 81-M149, 81-M201. Accession numbers 99-M86 and 2000-M15 were added in April 2016.
The papers of Freda Kirchwey were given to the Schlesinger Library by Freda Kirchwey and her sister Dorothy Kirchwey Brown, between April 1965 and August 1977; by her son, Michael Clark, between October 1980 and June 1981 and in June 1999; and were purchased from Certain Books in January 2000.

Processing Information:

Processed: March 1979 and October 1981
By: Donna Webber, Eric Nils Lindquist
Reprocessed and additional materials added: April 2016
By: Jenny Gotwals

Access Restrictions:

Access. Collection is open for research.

Conditions Governing Use:

Copyright. Copyright in the papers created by Freda Kirchwey is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.

Preferred Citation:

Freda Kirchwey Papers, 1871-1972; item description, dates. MC 280, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Related Material:

There is related material at the Schlesinger Library; see Dorothy Kirchwey Brown Additional Papers (MC 736).

SEPARATION RECORD

Donors: Freda Kirchwey and Dorothy Kirchwey Brown
Accession numbers: 69-30 -- 77-M140
Processed by: Donna Webber
The following items were removed from the collection and transferred to Houghton Library, Harvard University, March 1979:

BIOGRAPHY

Journalist Freda Kirchwey was born Mary Frederika Kirchwey in Lake Placid, New York, on September 26, 1883, to Dora Child Wendell and George Washington Kirchwey. She was one of four children: Dorothy (1888-1981), Karl (1885?-1943) and George (1897?-1905). George Washington Kirchwey (1855-1942) was a lawyer and noted criminologist who was Dean at the Albany Law School and Columbia Law School; warden at the Sing Sing state prison in Ossining, New York; and a New York State commissioner on prison reform. The Kirchwey children, including Freda, attended Horace Mann School in New York City, where two of George Kirchwey's sisters taught. Freda graduated from Horace Mann School in 1911 and received her B.A. from Barnard College in 1915.
In 1915 and 1916, Freda Kirchwey spent a year as a general reporter and Sunday feature writer for the New York Morning Telegraph, and in 1917 became a member of the editorial staff of a New York magazine, Every Week. After a short stint with the Sunday Tribune in 1918, Kirchwey joined the Nation, a liberal weekly magazine. She began her career at the Nation clipping articles for the International Relations section, but soon advanced to Associate Editor. She served as Managing Editor from 1922 to 1938, also becoming Vice-President in 1922. She was also Literary Editor from 1928 to 1929.
In November 1915, Freda Kirchwey married Evans Clark (1888-1970), a 1910 graduate of Amherst College who had pursued graduate work at Harvard University and received a MA from Columbia University in 1913. Clark was an instructor in history and government at Princeton University, but later worked as a journalist, becoming an editor at the New York Times. In 1928 Evans Clark left journalism to become Director of the Twentieth Century Fund, a progressive public-policy think tank, which he led until his retirement in 1953. Kirchwey and Clark's first child, Brewster, was born in 1916 and died at eight months of age the following year. A second son, Michael, was born in 1919. Jeffrey was born in 1923 and died of pneumonia in 1930.
In 1929, Kirchwey took a leave of absence from the Nation when Jeffrey's health deteriorated and she was advised to take him to the warmer climate of Florida to recuperate. When she returned to work in 1932, it was as Editor, a position she held until her retirement in 1955.
Kirchwey's life, including her personal finances, was intrinsically tied to the Nation. In January 1933, editorial control and management of the Nation passed to a board of four editors that included Kirchwey. In 1935 former editor Oswald Garrison Villard sold the journal to banker Maurice Wertheim, who in turn sold it to Freda Kirchwey two years later. Freda Kirchwey became Editor and Publisher in 1937, but, plagued by deficits resulting from the increase in prices brought on by World War II, decided to transfer ownership to the Nation Associates, a non-profit membership corporation founded in 1943. Kirchwey served as president of the Nation Associates, and with director Lillie Schultz worked to raise funds both to cover the Nation's deficit and to pay for forums, dinners, conferences, and reports that supported important liberal causes.
Kirchwey's son Michael Clark attended Exeter and the University of North Carolina, worked for the American Field Service during World War II, and was a journalist for the New York Times after the war, stationed in Paris and Cairo. While in Europe Michael Clark also worked for Kirchwey and the Nation, establishing a Paris office, and filing reports from the war front. In April 1941, Michael Clark was a passenger on the ZamZam, an American ship that was mistakenly sunk by German naval boats off the coast of Africa. The passengers were rescued by the Germans and eventually delivered to safety in Spain.
Following the Nation's ninetieth birthday in 1955, Freda Kirchwey approved the sale of the magazine to George Kirstein and turned over editorial control to Carey McWilliams. In retirement Kirchwey continued to support many liberal causes, serving as vice-chairman of the Committee for a Democratic Spain, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and the Committee for World Development and World Disarmament. Kirchwey was also a member of other groups, including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the American Civil Liberties Union, the League of Women Voters, and the International League for the Rights of Man. In recognition of her contribution to liberal opinion in the United States, Freda Kirchwey received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Rollins College in 1944; she was also made Chevalier of The French Legion of Honor in 1946.
Kirchwey and Clark traveled widely in Latin America, Europe, and the Middle East, but maintained their home in New York City until 1970, when Evans Clark died while on vacation in Nyon, Switzerland. After Clark's death, Freda Kirchwey lived first with her sister, Dorothy Kirchwey Brown, in Boston, Massachusetts, and then in Nova Scotia. She died in a St. Petersburg, Florida, nursing home, on January 3, 1976.

ARRANGEMENT

The collection is arranged in six series:

SCOPE AND CONTENT

The Freda Kirchwey papers contain Kirchwey's personal correspondence, diaries, daybooks, travel notes, photographs, and writings. Also included is Kirchwey's extensive professional correspondence, including with journalists, editors, and funders of the Nation, as well as other progressive activists of the mid-twentieth-century. Kirchwey family correspondence, and several diaries of Kirchwey's husband Evans Clark, are also included.
The collection was first arranged and processed with a National Endowment for the Humanities grant in 1979. Material was arranged and folders were numbered sequentially (#1-383f+). Another group of material (accessions #80-M210, 81-M149, and 81-M201) was added to the collection in 1981, and was further sequentially numbered (#384-434). This addenda was described in the finding aid after the original material, as if in a separate series. In 2016, two later accessions (1999-M86 and 2000-M15) were added to the collection. Each of these groups of material is housed together. Also in 2016, the entire collection was reboxed and renumbered. The original group of papers is now numbered #1.1-26.7, the 1981 addenda is #27.1-29.19, the 1999 addenda is #30.1-32.5, and the 2000 addenda is #33.1-33.21. The three groups of addenda are now listed intellectually within the finding aid with the series in which they belong. A copy of the original inventory with original numbering is in the first box of the collection. Series VI, Photographs, was not renumbered, as some of those photographs had already been digitized.
At the time of original processing, parts of the collection were closed to research. In 2009, some restricted material was added back into the collection. Folders that contain this material are noted as such in the inventory. The collection is arranged in six series, each arranged chronologically.
Series I, PERSONAL, 1871-1972 (#1.1-9.2, 27.1-27.14, 30.1-32.2, 33.1-33.21), contains biographical information, writings, Kirchwey family correspondence, correspondence with friends, travel reports, diaries and day books. Kirchwey's writings included here are mostly juvenilia; some essays from Barnard, a lot of playful verse. Kirchwey's diaries are incomplete, but the daybooks provide a useful record of her daily activities, with appointments and addresses noted. Travel reports (#3.15-5.2) are diary-like entries of trips, listing itineraries, people met, events, weather; most are typed, some written by Evans Clark, some by Kirchwey. Reports and notes on trips taken primarily on Nation business are in #25.2-25.11, but some of the vacation travel recorded here includes business meetings, especially trips to Latin America.
The series contains considerable information about the Clark children, and particularly about the death of Jeffrey from tuberculosis in 1930. There is extensive correspondence between Kirchwey and Evans Clark, the most illuminating of which is a series of letters written during Jeffrey Clark's final illness in 1930. Letters to Michael Clark from his parents date from 1936 to 1954, while he was away at boarding school and college, and then working as a journalist in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. In one letter from 1939 (#30.5), Evans Clark writes to Michael about his lack of sexual experience prior to meeting Kirchwey, and writes more generally about premarital sex, sexual feelings and awakenings of young men. Several of the letters from Freda Kirchwey discuss her intent for Michael to open a Paris branch of the Nation, and attempts to get him credentialed as a war correspondent. Some of the letters from the 1940s have been censored with passages cut out. Numerous letters (#31.8-31.9) from friends and professional associates of Freda Kirchwey and Evans Clark refer to the "loss of the ZamZam" in 1941 and the uncertainty of Michael's whereabouts. Several folders of letters from Kirchwey that are primarily about Michael Clark's dispatches written for the Nation from Paris and Cairo can be found in Series II (#32.3-32.5).
Evans Clark's diaries (#6.1, 31.10-32.2) are very detailed. The first volume (#31.10) describes museums, talks, lectures, concerts attended while attending classes at Harvard and Columbia. An entry written from Cambridge on January 11, 1911, records: "Heard Sylvia Pankhurst speak on Woman's Suffrage at Brattle Hall—most interesting—she's only 20!" Entries from 1914 discuss the beginnings of his courtship with Freda Kirchwey. Later diaries discuss work and family matters, with careful attention to Freda's health, pregnancies, and Michael's baby- and childhood. Evans Clark records Michael's first steps, an outbreak of measles, and details Jeffrey's poor health before his death (#6.1). A 1923 entry records "much reading of Freud at odd moments."
Freda Kirchwey's correspondence with friends often includes her handwritten replies; it is likely these were typed and sent by an assistant. Many of Kirchwey's personal friends were also her professional associates; there is overlap between personal correspondence in this series and that found in Series II and IV. Kirchwey family material is primarily correspondence; a few clippings describe deaths of Kirchwey family members, and several pages of Dora Kirchwey's autograph album are included (#27.12). Letters between Freda Kirchwey's parents George Washington Kirchwey and Dora Kirchwey span their long marriage, and are generally on the account of their separation due to Dora Kirchwey's ill health and need to seek climate-based respite from New York City. There is also correspondence among Kirchwey family members on the topic of Freda Kirchwey and Evans Clark's quick courtship; George Washington Kirchwey's financial and professional correspondence; and letters to Evans Clark from his father. The series is arranged with biographical and personal writings first, followed by correspondence, travel reports, diaries, and daybooks.
Series II, The Nation, 1918-1972 (#9.3-17.2, 28.1-29.2, 32.3-32.5, F+D.1-F+D.2, OD.1-OD.2), consists of papers Freda Kirchwey collected as editor and publisher of the magazine. Few papers date from before 1933, when Kirchwey became a member of the controlling editorial board. The administrative papers describe her involvement with the legal, financial, and staff problems of the Nation, including various libel suits. Much of the editorial and correspondence subseries illustrates the issues on which the Nation focused, such as the rise of fascism in Europe, the New Deal, the political consequences of World War II, and post-war anti-communism. The correspondence with prominent journalists (including John Gunther, I.F. Stone, and Louis Fischer) reveals not only the difficulties in securing information from government and private sources in the United States and overseas, but also provides material that never reached print. The reader correspondence is equally informative; it describes the split among liberals over such controversial issues as Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court, and the gradual abandonment of isolationism in favor of collective security in the late 1930s. The series is arranged in three subseries.
In January 1933, editorial control and management of the Nation passed to a board of four editors that included Freda Kirchwey. In 1935 Villard sold the Nation to banker Maurice Wertheim, who in turn sold it to Freda Kirchwey two years later. Freda Kirchwey became editor and publisher but, plagued by deficits resulting from the increase in prices brought on by World War II, decided to transfer ownership to the Nation Associates, a non-profit membership corporation founded in 1943. Freda Kirchwey remained president of the Nation Associates, and with director Lillie Schultz worked to raise funds both to cover the Nation's deficit and to pay for forums, dinners, conferences, and reports that supported important liberal causes. Following the Nation's ninetieth birthday in 1955, Freda Kirchwey approved the sale of the magazine to George Kirstein and turned over editorial control to Carey McWilliams.
Subseries A, Administration, 1918-1957 (#9.3-11.7, 28.1-28.6, F+D.1, OD.1), includes financial correspondence and reports, legal papers, and some general material on staff salaries for Newspaper Guild negotiations. These papers detail Kirchwey's personal involvement with the legal, financial, and staff problems of the Nation, including various libel suits. Many folders include correspondence with or memos from Hugo Van Arx, the Nation's financial associate, and Carey McWilliams, who worked closely with Kirchwey in the early 1950s, and succeeded her as editor.
Subseries B, Editorial, 1918-1972 (#11.8-13.10, 28.7-28.9, F+D.2), includes correspondence, reports, and planning notes. Folders in this subseries show planning for special issues of the Nation during the 1940s; several memos and reports focus on propaganda in United States election campaigns. Several reports from the early 1950s comment on the Nation's editorial program and its relation to the magazine's finances. Much of the correspondence in this subseries discusses the rise of fascism in Europe, the New Deal, the political consequences of World War II, and post-war anti-communism.
Subseries C, Correspondence, 1931-1956 (#13.11-17.2, 28.10-29.2, 32.3-32.5, OD.2), includes Freda Kirchwey and other Nation staff's correspondence with Nation journalists, editors, and readers. The correspondence with prominent journalists (including John Gunther, I.F. "Izzy" Stone, and Louis Fischer) reveals not only the difficulties in securing information from government and private sources in the United States and overseas, but also provides material that never reached print. The reader correspondence is equally informative; it describes the split among liberals over such controversial issues as Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court, and the gradual abandonment of isolationism in favor of collective security in the late 1930s. Reader correspondence shows a geographically diverse readership, but letters are primarily from male readers. Some readers were outraged by the Nation's tepid response to Henry A. Wallace's third-party campaign for president in 1948; others whole-heartedly agreed. Much of the editorial and correspondence subseries illustrates the issues on which The Nation focused, such as the rise of fascism in Europe, the New Deal, the political consequences of World War II, and post-war anti-communism.
Kirchwey's son Michael Clark worked peripatetically for the Nation for a number of years. Several folders (#32.3-32.5) contain Kirchwey and Michael Clark's correspondence on Nation matters, primarily about dispatches he wrote from Paris and Cairo during the 1940s. Kirchwey also discussed Nation business in other, more personal, letters to Michael Clark included in Series I (#30.2-31.6). Kirchwey's extensive correspondence with journalist and Nation foreign editor Julio Álvarez del Vayo is in Series IV.
Series III, The Nation Associates, 1942-1955 (#17.3-18.7, 29.3), documents the group's promotion of major liberal issues supported by Freda Kirchwey and the Nation. There are some administrative papers, but the bulk of the series contains correspondence, United Nations and general reports, and printed material that describes the Nation Associates' activities on behalf of the establishment of the State of Israel and the overthrow of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. The correspondence between Kirchwey and director Lillie Schultz discusses not only the Nation Associates' programs, but also provides insight into the difficulties of generating support, including financial support, for a liberal magazine during the postwar era.
Series IV, Julio Álvarez del Vayo, 1940-1970 (#18.8-21.12, 29.4), contains Álvarez del Vayo's correspondence with Freda Kirchwey and the Nation editorial staff, and some personal papers. Álvarez del Vayo, a politician and journalist, was the last foreign minister of the Republican government of Spain, and began contributing to the Nation in 1940 shortly after he fled Spain (see #18.8, 18.11, 18.12.) As Foreign Editor of the Nation he worked closely with Kirchwey; the extensive correspondence reveals their long professional and personal friendship. Álvarez del Vayo lived in the United States, Mexico, and Switzerland after leaving Spain; his letters reveal his international addresses and frequent travels, including to China. This series also contains some of Álvarez del Vayo's private papers, including other professional correspondence, writings, and two folders that document his difficulties with the United States Immigration Service due to his reputation as a prominent Spanish socialist.
Series V, PROFESSIONAL PAPERS, 1913-1972 (#21.13-26.7, 29.5-29.19, FD.1, F+D.3-F+D.4, M-28), contains correspondence, speeches, and reports primarily relating to Freda Kirchwey's work with organizations other than the Nation. There is considerable material from Kirchwey's trips abroad, where she met with major government and socialist leaders, and also articles by and about Freda Kirchwey, several awards, and notes for a book about the Nation that was never published. Files on organizations are mostly correspondence. General correspondence (#21.13-21.14, 29.5-29.6) includes organizations that worked for peace and social justice in the United States and internationally, such as the Committee for Asylum for Trotsky and the Committee to Award Rosika Schwimmer a Peace Prize. Travel files (#25.2-25.11) include Kirchwey's notes and correspondence for professional trips, during which she conducted business for the Nation, the Nation Associates, and on behalf of organizations and her own political interests.
Series V, PROFESSIONAL PAPERS, 1913-1972 (#21.13-26.7, 29.5-29.19, FD.1, F+D.3-F+D.4, M-28), contains correspondence, speeches, and reports primarily relating to Freda Kirchwey's work with organizations other than the Nation. There is considerable material from Kirchwey's trips abroad, where she met with major government and socialist leaders, and also articles by and about Freda Kirchwey, several awards, and notes for a book about the Nation that was never published. Files on organizations are mostly correspondence. General correspondence (#21.13-21.14, 29.5-29.6) includes organizations that worked for peace and social justice in the United States and internationally, such as the Committee for Asylum for Trotsky and the Committee to Award Rosika Schwimmer a Peace Prize. Travel files (#25.2-25.11) include Kirchwey's notes and correspondence for professional trips, during which she conducted business for the Nation, the Nation Associates, and on behalf of organizations and her own political interests.
Series VI, Photographs, ca.1895-1968 (#366-383f+, 434), includes portraits of Freda Kirchwey, Kirchwey and Clark family photographs, and pictures of the Nation staff and a number of dinners and conferences. When the rest of the collection was renumbered in 2016, these photograph folders retained their original numbering system.
There is related material at the Schlesinger Library: Kirchwey's correspondence with her sister, as well as a baby book for Evans Clark and Brewster Clark, and other Kirchwey family correspondence, can be found in the Dorothy Kirchwey Brown Additional Papers (MC 736).
Houghton Library, Harvard University, holds the papers of Nation editor Oswald Garrison Villard (1886-ca.1949), and records of the Nation, 1865-1893 (MS Am 1083.1) and 1879-1974 (MS Am 2302). Other early records of the Nation, 1873-1906 (MssCol 2095), are at the New York Public Library. The papers of Carey McWilliams (Collection 1319), who worked closely with Kirchwey and succeeded her as Nation editor, are held by the Charles E. Young Research Library at University of California Los Angeles.

Container List

Additional Index Terms

Anti-communist movements
Anti-fascist movements
Authors and publishers--United States
Diaries
Editors--United States
Family records
Fascism--Europe
Israel--History--1948-1967
Journalists--United States
Liberalism
Mothers and sons
New Deal, 1933-1939
Periodicals--Publishing
Publishers and publishing
Spain--History--1939-1975
Spain--History--Republic, 1931-1939
Speeches
United States--Social conditions--1933-1945
United States--Social conditions--1945-
Voyages and travels
Women editors--United States.
Women journalists--United States.
World War, 1939-1945--Social aspects
Alvarez del Vayo, Julio, 1891-
American Friends Service Committee
Anthony, Susan Brownell, 1916-
Auden, W.H. (Wystan Hugh), 1907-1973
Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981
Baruch, Bernard M. (Bernard Mannes), 1870-1965
Beard, Charles Austin, 1874-1948
Beard, Mary Ritter, 1876-1958
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942
Boyd-Orr, John Boyd-Orr, Baron, 1880-1971
Braden, Anne, 1924-2006
Brown, Dorothy Kirchwey
Burlingham, Charles Culp, 1858-1959
Celler, Emanuel, 1888-1981
Chase, Stuart, 1888-1985
Clark, Evans, 1888-1970
Committee for a Democratic Spain
Committee for World Development and World Disarmament
Dean, Vera Micheles, 1903-1972
Goldberg, Arthur Joseph
Dos Passos, John, 1896-1970
Durr, Clifford J. (Clifford Judkins), 1899-1975
Eban, Abba Solomon, 1915-2002
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969
Ernst, Morris Leopold, 1888-1976
Farrell, James T. (James Thomas), 1904-1979
Fischer, Louis, 1896-1970
Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1958
Frank, Waldo David, 1889-1967
Gannett, Lewis, 1891-1966
Gide, André, 1869-1951
Gruening, Ernest, 1887-1974
Gunther, John, 1901-1970
Howe, Quincy, 1900-
Ickes, Harold L. (Harold LeClair), 1874-1952
Irwin, Inez Haynes, 1873-1970
Jack, Homer Alexander
Kaufman, George S. (George Simon), 1889-1961
Kellogg, Paul Underwood, 1879-1958
Keynes, John Maynard, 1883-1946
Kirchwey, George W. (George Washington), 1855-1942
Knopf, Alfred A., 1892-1984
Krutch, Joseph Wood, 1893-1970
Laidlaw, H. B. (Harriet Burton), 1874-1949
Lerner, Max, 1902-1992
Lehman, Herbert H. (Herbert Henry), 1878-1963
Lewis, John Llewellyn, 1880-1969
Lovett, Robert Morss, 1870-1956
McWilliams, Carey, 1905-1980
Magnes, Judah Leon, 1877-1948
Mann, Erika, 1905-1969
Mann, Thomas, 1875-1955
Maritain, Jacques, 1882-1973
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993
Mather, Kirtley F. (Kirtley Fletcher), 1888-1978
Mencken, H.L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956
Meyer, Annie Nathan, 1867-1951
Mills, C. Wright (Charles Wright), 1916-1962
Morgenthau, Hans Joachim, 1904-
Morgenthau, Henry, 1891-1967
Morison, Samuel Eliot, 1887-1976
Murrow, Edward R.
Myrdal, Gunnar, 1898-1987
Nathan, Otto, 1893-1987
Neruda, Pablo, 1904-1973
Norton, William Warder, 1891-1945
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1892-1971
Norris, George W. (George William), 1861-1944
Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865)
Nation Associates
Oxnam, G. Bromley (Garfield Bromley), 1891-1963
Pickett, Clarence, 1884-1965
Ratcliffe, Samuel K.
Romero James, Concha
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945
Rotch, Helen
Rougemont, Denis de, 1906-1985
Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970
Schlesinger, Arthur M. (Arthur Meier), 1917-2007
Schultz, Lillie
Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968
Smith, Jessica, 1895-
Southern Conference Educational Fund
Spender, Stephen, 1909-1995
Stewart, Maxwell Slutz, 1900-
Stevenson, Adlai E. (Adlai Ewing), 1900-1965
Stone, I.F. (Isidor Feinstein), 1907-1989
Storrow, James J., 1917-
Straight, Michael Whitney
Swing, Raymond Gram, 1887-1968
Tanz, Doris Wolson
Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968
Thurber, James, 1894-1961
Tree, Marietta, 1917-
Trotsky, Leon, 1879-1940
United Nations
Van Arx, Hugo
Van Doren, Dorothy, 1896-1993
Van Loon, Hendrik Willem, 1882-1944
Viereck, Peter, 1916-2006
Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949
Wagner, Robert F. (Robert Ferdinand), 1877-1953
Wallace, Henry A. (Henry Agard), 1888-1965
Weizmann, Chaim, 1874-1952
Welles, Sumner, 1892-1961
Wertheim, Maurice, 1886-1950
White, William Allen, 1868-1944
Whiting, Caroline
Willkie, Wendell L. (Wendell Lewis), 1892-1944
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Woolley, Mary Emma, 1863-1947
Worker's Defense League
World Center for Women's Archives
Wright, Richard, 1908-1960

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