Frederick, Christine, 1883-1970. Papers of Christine Frederick, 1887-1970 (inclusive),
1901-1970 (bulk): A Finding Aid
Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe
Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Call No.: MC 261
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe
Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Christine Frederick, 1883-1970
Title: Papers of Christine Frederick, 1883-1970 (inclusive), 1901-1970 (bulk)
Quantity: .42 linear feet (1 file box) plus 18 folders of photographs, 1 oversize folder, 1 folio folder, 2
supersize items, 1 reel of microfilm (M-107)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Correspondence, writings, photographs, etc., of Christine Isobel (MacGaffey) Frederick,
home economist, lecturer, and author.
Accession numbers: 74-161, 80-M19
The Christine (MacGaffey) Frederick papers were given to the Schlesinger Library by
Jean Joyce in July 1974 and were processed under a grant from the National Endowment for the
Humanities (RC-24669-76-987). Further addenda were given by Jean Joyce in February
Processed: March 1978
By: Madeleine Bagwell Perez
Access. Collection is open for research, with the exception of folder 13, which is
closed, use microfilm (M-107).
Copyright. Copyright in the unpublished papers created by Christine Frederick is held
by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright
in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.
Christine Frederick Papers, 1883-1970; item description, dates. MC 261, folder #.
Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
The following books from these papers have been catalogued with the regular library
- Christine Frederick, Household Engineering; scientific management in the home. Chicago, American School of Home Economics, 1919.
- Christine Frederick, The New Housekeeping; efficiency studies in home management. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1913.
- Christine Frederick, Selling Mrs. Consumer. New York, The Business Bourse, 1929.
- Justus George Frederick, Cooking As Men Like It, by J. George Frederick, with an introduction by Mrs. Christine Frederick. New York,
The Business Bourse, 1930.
Christine (MacGaffey) Frederick was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 6,
1883. Her parents, Mimi (Scott) and William R. Campbell, separated soon after her
birth; in 1894 her mother married Wyatt MacGaffey, a lawyer who adopted Christine.
In 1907 Christine McGaffey (the spelling she later chose) married Justus George Frederick,
a business executive, writer, and editor.
After their marriage the Fredericks moved to New York where Frederick began a career
as a home economist, lecturer and author. She and her husband helped found the Advertising
Women of New York in 1912, because women were refused admission to the men's advertising
club. She campaigned for more efficiency in the kitchen, arguing that women ought
to have more efficient equipment and experiment with improved techniques just as businessmen
and farmers were doing. To test her theories, Frederick set up and directed a model
kitchen, the Applecroft Home Experiment Station, on Long Island. She was credited
with bringing about the standardization of the height of kitchen counters and work
surfaces, and with encouraging the design of kitchens to save steps for the women
using them. Frederick lectured on the Chautauqua circuit, 1917; was a contributing
or consulting editor for several magazines (including Ladies Home Journal, The Designer, Shrine, and The American Weekly), 1912-1948; wrote several books on household management and the role of women as
consumers; and raised four children (David Mansfield [died 1952], Jean, Phyllis and
Carol). In 1950 she moved to Laguna Beach, California and began a new career as an
interior decorator and instructor at Orange Coast College, retiring in 1957(?).
Christine Frederick died of heart disease on April 6, 1970 at the age of 87. For further
biographical information, see Notable American Women, The Modern Period (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980).
The collection is arranged in four series:
- SERIES I. CORRESPONDENCE. Folders 1-8.
- SERIES II. WRITINGS BY AND ABOUT. Folders 9-13, Microfilm M-107.
- SERIES III. OTHER PAPERS. Folders 14-19.
- SERIES IV. PHOTOGRAPHS. Folders 20-38.
When deposited in the Library, the papers of Christine (MacGaffey) Frederick were
in scrapbooks. They have been removed for preservation purposes and the newsclippings
have been microfilmed. These papers document only some aspects of Frederick's work
as a home economist. Photographs make up the bulk of the collection and emphasize
her work at Applecroft Home Experiment Station. The other papers include correspondence
concerning her magazine articles, copies of speeches and talks, booklets and pamphlets,
and a few documents and photographs about Frederick's college days and personal life.
There are no personal papers.
MICROFILM M-107: Newspaper articles by Frederick, 1913-1950 (scattered); as well as
newsclippings about Frederick, 1901-1966 (scattered) have been microfilmed, and a
positive microfilm is available for research use. The original newsclippings have
- SERIES I. CORRESPONDENCE, 1912-1969
- 1. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1912-1918. Most re articles for Ladies Home Journal, includes 1913 list of suggested topics. Several from Edward Bok.
- 2. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1919-1921, n.d. Re Ladies Home Journal, articles. Several from Edward Bok.
- 3. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1929-1939 (scattered). Includes postcard with photograph
of Christine Frederick and Paulette Bernege, 1933.
See also folders 7, 8, 33, 38.
- 4. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1941-1942. Most re The American Weekly articles.
See also folder 7.
- 5. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1943-1944. Most re The American Weekly articles.
See also folder 7
- 6. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1945-1947. Includes letters from Emilie J. van Waveren.
For photograph, see folder 33. See also folder 8.
- 7. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1948 (July). Group of letters and articles, 1935-1944
(scattered), 1948, used by Christine Frederick for Social Security claims. Most concern
American Weekly employment.
- 8. Correspondence, mostly referring to Christine Frederick's various editorships and
her work as a consumer advisor, 1949-1969 (scattered). Includes letters re Noyes School
of Rhythm; and Dorothy Dignam correspondence. The latter contains 1946-1949 letters
of Paulette Bernege to Dorothy Dignam (returned to Christine Frederick, 1969).
For photographs of Paulette Bernege see folders 3, 33, 38; for Noyes School of Rhythm
dance group see folder 38.
- SERIES II. WRITINGS BY AND ABOUT CHRISTINE FREDERICK, 1901-1969
Scope and Contents: Includes draft of autobiography, speeches, talks, booklets, newspaper columns and
- 9. Autobiography (early years). Draft, begun by Christine Frederick, 1969. Note by Jean
Joyce (Christine Frederick's daughter) re mother's health at the time.
- 10. Speeches, talks, testimony, 1914-1966. Includes some drafts, typescripts and printed
- 11. Advertisements for Christine Frederick's books, 1913-1929 (scattered).
- 12. Booklets, pamphlets, 1914-1937, n.d. All by Christine Frederick.
- The Efficient Kitchen and Laundry, New York, Efficiency Society, 1914.
- "Methods and devices for efficient cleaning," The New Womanhood Magazine, 1914.
- "Experiments in hand and mechanical dishwashing," The New Womanhood Magazine, 1914?
- You and Your Laundry, New York, The Hurley Machine Co., 1920.
- Woman As Bait In Advertising, New York, League of Advertising Women, 1921.
- Come Into My Kitchen, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, The Vollrath Co., 1922.
- The Most Important Tool in Your Kitchen, Southbridge, Massachusetts, Harrington Cutlery Co. (Dexter Stainless), 1924.
- Parties All the Year Round, New York, The Shrine Magazine, 1928.
- Frankfurters As You Like Them, New York, Stahl-Meyer, Inc., 1931.
- Hershey's Favorite Recipes, Hershey, Pennsylvania, Hershey Chocolate Co. 1937.
- "How to Plan and Equip the Efficient Kitchen," The Ladies Home Journal, n.d.
- Seald Sweet Cook Book, Tampa, Fla., Florida Citrus Exchange, n.d.
- Tested and Recommended Household Equipment, Springfield, Massachusetts, n.d.
- Let's Bring the Kitchen Up-to-date, New York, The International Nickel Co., Inc., n.d.
- 13. Lists of Christine Frederick articles in The American Weekly, 1934-1943.
An incomplete file of these columns has been microfilmed, see M-107.
- Supersize items. Two Redpath Chautauqua posters, 1917(?). Christine Frederick was one of the speakers.
Ladies' home journal
The American Weekly
Applecroft Home Experiment Station
Bok, Edward William, 1863-1930
Van Waveren, Emilie J.