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MC 477

East, Catherine, 1916-1996. Papers, 1941-1995: A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America

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These papers were processed under a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
June 2003 of creation

Updated April 2011

© 2003 President and Fellows of Harvard College

Descriptive Summary

Call No.: MC 477
Repository: Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
Creator: Catherine East, 1916-1996
Title: Papers, 1941-1995
Quantity: 27 cartons, 3 file boxes, 1 folio folder, 1 folio+ folder, 16 photograph folders, 1 slide, 4 audiotapes (T-264)
Abstract: Papers of government official and feminist activist Catherine East

Processing Information:

Processed: January 2003
By: Katherine Gray Kraft
Updated: April 2011

Acquisition Information:

Accession numbers: 82-M239, 95-M133, 2001-M133
These papers were given to the Schlesinger Library in November 1982 and September 1995 by Catherine Shipe East; additional papers originally borrowed from East were transferred to the library in August 2001 by Cynthia Harrison.

TERMS OF USE:

Access. The papers are unrestricted, with the following exceptions: records generated by East on behalf of the National Women's Political Caucus (#29.1-30.15), are restricted under an agreement between that organization and the library. Written permission of the National Women's Political Caucus is required for access.

Use Restrictions:

Copyright. Copyright in papers created by Catherine East is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright in papers created by Catherine East while an officer of, or working on behalf of, an organization is held by the organization. Copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns. Researchers must obtain the written permission of the holder(s) of copyright and the director of the Schlesinger Library before publishing quotations from materials in the collection.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures. Written permission to copy restricted papers created for the National Women's Political Caucus (#27.36-28.8) must be obtained in addition to written permission to use the papers.

BIOGRAPHY

Government official and feminist activist Catherine East was born May 15, 1916, to U.G. and Bertha (Woody) Shipe, in Barboursville, W.Va. She attended Marshall College (now University) in Huntington, W.Va., from 1932 to 1935, where she majored in English and mathematics. Unable to pay her tuition, she had to leave school before completing the requirements for her degree. Marshall granted the A.B. in absentia in 1941, having allowed her to complete her coursework at George Washington University (GWU), which she attended at night during the 1939-1940 academic year. Later (1942-1944), she studied law at GWU, and took courses in comparative religion at the Washington School of Psychiatry and Episcopal Cathedral. She married Charles D. East on July 2, 1937; they divorced in 1956. They had two daughters, Mary Ellen ("Vicky," born in 1945) and Elizabeth Rose ("Betsy," born in 1952). East was active in the Unitarian Church.
After leaving college due to lack of funds, East worked as a bookkeeper in several clothing stores in Huntington. In January 1939 she began her career in the federal government in Washington, D.C., as a clerk in the Civil Service Commission. During her 23 years there she worked her way up to staff officer, placement officer, program planner as assistant to the chief of the program planning division, coordinating officer in the Bureau of Programs and Standards, and finally Chief of the Career Services Division in the Bureau of Recruiting and Examining.
East served in a senior capacity on all Presidential advisory commissions on women from 1962 through 1977, conducting research, and preparing position papers, publications and reports on a wide range of women's issues. These reports provided the underpinning and impetus for a renewed effort on behalf of the Equal Rights Amendment. East was also instrumental in orchestrating pressure on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to adopt and enforce sex discrimination guidelines. She was the Technical Secretary to the Committee on Federal Employment of the President's Commission on the Status of Women (March 1962 - November 1963), and served as the Executive Secretary of the Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women and the Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women (November 1963 - April 1974). While Deputy Coordinator of the International Women's Year Secretariat (April 1975 - November 1976), East wrote several chapters of the report, ...To Form a More Perfect Union...Justice for American Women . In November 1976 she became Coordinator of Policies and Plans for the IWY Secretariat, resigning a year later over differences with Bella Abzug. It was her last government position.
After her retirement in 1977, East began a new career as a full-time activist, working for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment in Virginia and nationally, serving as women's issues coordinator in the John Anderson Presidential campaign (Nov. 1979 - Nov. 1980), as legislative director of the National Women's Political Caucus (Oct. 1983 - Dec. 1986), and as a board member of the National Organization for Women's Legal Defense and Education Fund (NOW LDEF) from 1979 to 1983. She also participated in a study of how ten newspapers handled various women's issues, and co-authored the report "New Directions for News." (The related correspondence and project files from that study are part of East's papers in the National Women and Media Collection at the University of Missouri-Columbia.)
East was a member of numerous organizations, including the American Association of University Women, American Civil Liberties Union, League of Women Voters, National Woman's Party, NOW, National Abortion Rights Action League, National Federation of Business and Professional Women, NWPC, and Planned Parenthood. Recognized by Betty Friedan as the "midwife to the birth of the women's movement," she also received numerous awards, including WEAL's Elizabeth Boyer Award in 1983 for her "outstanding contribution to the advancement of women," and the Veteran Feminists of America Medal of Honor in 1993. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, N.Y. in 1994. A longtime resident of Arlington, Va., East moved to Ithaca, N.Y., in early 1996 to be near her younger daughter Betsy East. She died August 17, 1996.

Chronology

SCOPE AND CONTENT

This collection documents East's efforts to improve women's legal, political, and economic status. A federal government employee for 38 years, she collected information, prepared reports (sometimes attributed to others), compiled statistics, and helped shape federal policies affecting women. After her retirement, she continued to work on behalf of expanding women's rights and opportunities.
The papers reflect East's service on various federal, state, and international commissions on women, as well as her efforts on behalf of the Equal Rights Amendment and other major issues in a variety of women's organizations (e.g., National Women's Political Caucus, National Organization for Women Legal Defense and Education Fund). Included are correspondence, memoranda, speeches, reports, court cases and background material, appointment books, mailing lists, and printed material relating to numerous women's issues and organizations; correspondence, speeches and other papers re: her role in the Presidential campaign of John Anderson; story notes and related material by journalist Vera Glaser; and photographs. There are very few personal papers.
East's papers were sorted and shipped to the library by historian Cynthia Harrison and an assistant. They originally filled 95 cartons; the extensive reference files were heavily weeded. East read widely, collecting and analyzing information from many different sources. Her subject files bulged with clippings, leaflets, and reports on every aspect of the lives of women from all walks of life. Clippings, widely available publications by governments and organizations, and Congressional testimony prepared by others were discarded. Periodicals were transferred to the Schlesinger Library periodical collection. Annotated publications and copies of clippings carrying routing information (usually to other well-known women in government or the women's movement) were retained. Topics overlap throughout the collection, and, in general, are not limited to any particular series. Most folder headings are those of Catherine East; archivist's notes are in square brackets.
The collection is divided into ten series:
Series I, Personal and Biographical (#1.1-1.13, 3.1-3.32v), is arranged in two subseries. Subseries A contains biographical information, including brief career summaries, resumes, job applications, passport and identity cards (#1.1), and an article about East (#1.11); certificates and awards (#1.2, 1.3f, 1.6), including letters of tribute (#1.6), as well as award nomination letters (#1.4-1.5); papers relating to her early work for the Federal government (#1.7-1.9); a few letters and cards from her husband and children (#1.12); and a list of folder headings in her original filing systems (#1.13).
Subseries B contains a thirty-year run of appointment books, kept from 1962 through 1992 (#3.1-3.32v).
Series II, Correspondence Files (#1.14-2.53), covers all areas of East's work, and overlaps all other series. Spanning 1943-1994, it is divided into two subseries.
Subseries A (#1.14-2.30) is now arranged alphabetically, although when received the folders were spread haphazardly throughout the collection. Those folders containing only information about an individual, and no correspondence, are noted, as are folders containing speeches or other items of interest. There is extensive correspondence about court cases with lawyers Jean Ledwith King (#1.45-2.5) and Sylvia Roberts (#2.20-2.23), and several folders each for Congresswoman Martha Griffiths (#1.33-1.35), and feminists Wilma Scott Heide (#1.39-1.41) and Pauli Murray (#2.11-2.13). Some folders, especially those of Heide and King, contain numerous copies of correspondence with others. Many correspondents in this subseries appear throughout the collection, and are so noted in folder descriptions.
Subseries B (#2.31-2.53) is arranged chronologically, as originally received. Labeled "personal" by East, there are actually few personal letters; the label probably served to distinguish these papers from official government documents, which were left in her office(s). As with the alphabetical files, most correspondence concerns political issues and engagements. Selected correspondents are listed in the folder descriptions. Documents concerning the Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW), International Women's Year (IWY), National Organization for Women Legal Defense and Education fund (NOW LDEF), and Women's Equity Action League (WEAL), as well as East biographical sketches, were transferred to their respective sections of the collection.
Series III, Speeches and Writings (#4.1-7.70), consists of speeches, papers from a few meetings she attended only as an audience member, and writings (#7.59-7.70). Most speech folders include pre- and post-speech correspondence, speech notes, programs, and clippings. They are arranged by date of event. East spoke to professional associations, educational and financial institutions, clubs and organizations, government agencies, and military service academies and units about the status of women, government regulations affecting women's employment, and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Government publications, articles by others, invoices and travel arrangements, etc. have been discarded. Some speeches were revised and adapted for multiple uses. Speeches are not listed individually in the finding aid, but grouped by year. Non-speech items of unusual interest are noted, (e.g., forms completed by East about her management style in #4.25, and papers about a conference on extremists and the ERA in #7.47), as are her speeches about the ERA, and speeches attributed to others but apparently drafted by East. A few folders in other series also contain speeches, and are so noted.
East's writings consist of various book chapters and articles. A proposed book in collaboration with Caroline Bird and Mary Scott Welch on women who had established legal precedents under Title VII was apparently never published. Included here are transcripts and notes on interviews with attorneys and others, as well as correspondence, printed material and related papers (#7.59-7.61). There are also correspondence, memos, article drafts and the published chapter for East's contribution to Irene Tinker's book Women in Washington , published in 1983 (#7.64-7.66). In addition to East's chapter on the work of the CACSW, state commissions and the National Commission for the Observance of International Women's Year (NCOIWY), there are drafts of chapters by Joan Goodin and Fern Ingersoll. East also wrote about the ERA for the California Commission on the Status of Women (#7.63) and the National Women's Political Caucus (#7.62). Her paper for the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's observance of the 20th anniversary of the report by the President's Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW), along with correspondence, meeting minutes, and drafts of a speech East wrote for Martha Griffiths, are in #7.67-7.70. Additional writings (e.g., East's 1985 article on the ERA in #23.42, and her issue papers for John Anderson's Presidential campaign) are located in other series as noted.
Series IV, Commissions on the Status of Women (#7.71-9.7), is arranged in two subseries. Subseries A, President's Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW, #7.71-8.32) contains background papers, "key documents," press releases, lists of Commission and committee members, correspondence, attachments (minutes, reports, statements, etc.) for meetings, reports, etc. Included are a few letters or memos with Eleanor Roosevelt (#8.17), Esther Peterson's notes on President Lyndon Johnson's talk to the Cabinet in Jan. 1964 (#8.32), and Kay Klatzberger's interview of Mary Hilton in 1971 (#8.11).
Subseries B, Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women (#8.33-9.7) contains Esther Peterson's meeting notebooks and other notes (#8.33, 8.35-8.37, 8.43), meeting materials, including agendas, minutes, notes, etc. (#8.33-8.48), and related papers concerning the federal employment of women. The ICSW was established Nov. 1, 1963, by Pres. John F. Kennedy's Executive Order 11126. It was composed of the Secretary of Labor, as chairman, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, all ex officio. The Director of the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor served as Executive Vice-Chairman of the Committee, and was an ex officio member. Its purpose was to maintain a continuing review and evaluation of the progress of Federal departments and agencies in advancing the status of women, to serve as a clearinghouse for information, stimulate cooperation and information-sharing among all levels of government, encourage research on factors affecting the status of women, and exchange information with the Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW).
Series V, Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women (CACSW, #9.8-17.40), documents East's role in the work of the CACSW from its establishment on November 1, 1963, by Executive Order 11126 (along with the ICSW), until she left for the State Department's International Women's Year Secretariat in April 1975. The Council was appointed by the President to study issues relating to the status of women, and to recommend changes in law and policy. East drafted position papers and reports, planned national conferences of the State Commissions on the Status of Women, helped the Congressional Judiciary Committee plan hearings on the ERA, and testified as an expert witness in court cases and before state legislatures.
Included here are meeting minutes, notes and related papers (#13.29-13.46), transcripts of proceedings (#13.47-15.19), and correspondence, notes and memos documenting the history of the CACSW and its policies (#12.18-12.20). Issues particularly well-documented include abortion (#9.16-9.21); disadvantaged families (#10.46-11.6), including East's annotated copy of Daniel Patrick Moynihan's The Negro Family ; divorce (#11.14-11.23); the military draft (#11.24-11.33); the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (#11.40-11.45); East's trip to Great Britain to testify before the House of Lords on a pending sex discrimination bill (#12.10-12.14); the Inter-American Commission on Women assembly in 1972 (#12.24-12.29); maternity leave (#13.12-13.26); Title VII and protective legislation (#16.8-16.19); and women in various occupations (#16.26-17.32, 27.39-27.40).
A large portion of this series consists of files on court cases involving sex discrimination (#9.35-10.40), and contains correspondence, notes, and annotated reference material. Folders are arranged alphabetically by case name, with the exception of several pregnancy-related cases grouped at the end of the section. Most briefs and published articles have been discarded, unless annotated or referred to extensively in the accompanying correspondence.
There are also extensive files (#16.26-17.4) compiled by Vera Glaser, a syndicated reporter for the Knight-Ridder newspapers, and a close friend of East. Included are Glaser's typed interview notes, many with White House and other government employees about the appointment of women to office, the status of women, etc. (#16.31-16.33); papers about the founding of the Professional Women's Caucus (#16.30); and information about women in the Nixon Administration (#17.3-17.4). Two additional folders on women in the Nixon Administration supplement Glaser's notes and correspondence (#27.39-27.40); they were boxed separately from her other folders, and it is not clear by whom they were compiled.
Files documenting the efforts of White House staffer Ralph Dungan to help President Johnson place more women in top federal jobs contain correspondence, memos and lists (#17.19-17.26). There are also numerous folders about women in a variety of occupations, and their participation in various organizations. Of particular interest is East's completed questionnaire on "concerns and characteristics of people involved in social change," for the Women's Rights Conference held in Pittsburgh to celebrate the Women's Strike of August 1970 (#17.39). East filed papers on the ERA separately: see Series VII.
Series VI, National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year (NCOIWY, #18.1-22.35, 27.41-27.45), covers East's work as Deputy Coordinator of the Secretariat for International Women's Year, State Department. Included are subject files, and extensive documentation of the 1975 international conference in Mexico City, and of the highly contentious state meetings leading up to and including the National Women's Conference in Houston in 1977. East recruited and supervised staff for the NCOIWY's 14 committees, and worked closely with others to produce the 382-page report, ...To Form a More Perfect Union...Justice for American Women , writing the chapters on the ERA and the homemaker. Drafts and correspondence about the controversial report are included in #21.2-21.11. The report was written in March 1976, reviewed in April, and submitted to outside editor Lindsy Van Gelder for rewriting. It was presented to the Commission for their June 30 - July 1 meeting. The members were asked to vote on the different versions. Meanwhile, faced with a deadline, the GPO published the original version in June.
East helped select the State IWY Committees and took part in planning their work. She supervised the creation of workshop guides on 18 women's issues, including the ERA, rape, wife abuse, credit, etc., and of state-produced monographs on the legal status of the homemaker. (NCOIWY publications are housed with the NCOIWY records in the Schlesinger Library.) Also included are records of the Continuing Committee of the National Women's Conference (#18.38-18.41), even though they were created after East had resigned from the Commission in 1977 over disagreements with Presiding Officer Bella Abzug.
This series contains minutes, correspondence (#18.9-18.26), subject and publicity (#20.35-20.41) files, and files on state meetings, arranged alphabetically (#21.22-22.7). Many of the documents are photocopies. In addition to those topics and conferences mentioned above, the subject files include correspondence and reference material on Jimmy Carter's campaign and Presidency (#27.41-27.45); divorce and support laws (#19.1-19.6); homemakers' rights (#19.19-19.21); material about opposition to the ERA and to the NCOIWY in two court cases (#19.16-19.17, 19.31-19.33) and on Sen. Jesse Helms' hearings on the matter (#19.18); an interview with Annie Dodge Wauneka, Navaho member of the Commission (#19.25); and women in various occupations and organizations. East filed her papers on the ERA separately: see Series VII.
Series VII, Equal Rights Amendment (ERA, #22.36-25.11), contains correspondence and printed material from East's unflagging efforts to achieve ratification of the ERA in Virginia and nationally. This series overlaps Series V and VI, since East kept most ERA materials together, adding to them as the unsuccessful campaign continued. However, there are several folders pertaining to the ERA in other series. Following the correspondence (#22.36-22.42) and several folders of general material (#22.43-22.45), is an alphabetical subject file. Many issues overlap those in earlier series. Documented extensively are Congressional hearings (#23.22-23.44); legislative history (#23.25-23.34); Mormons for ERA (#23.39-23.41); ERA and the various states (#24.3-24.49), with particular emphasis on the Commonwealth of Virginia (#24.28-24.48); and support laws (#24.50-25.4).
Series VIII, John Anderson Presidential Campaign (#25.12-26.35), shows East's role as Women's Issues Coordinator for the independent candidacy of John B. Anderson, Republican Congressman from Illinois. A life-long Democrat, East joined Anderson's campaign in Nov. 1979 because of his early attention to women's issues. She wrote the women's issues section of Anderson's platform; recruited other women for the campaign, both for a National Advisory Committee and by drafting direct mail letters; wrote speeches for Anderson and his wife Keke Anderson; and attended the Republican National Convention to oppose the Republican platform on the ERA, and to recruit Anderson supporters. East resigned from the campaign in Sept. 1980 because she believed that little attention was being paid to women's issues or to unorganized women voters.
This series contains correspondence; platform drafts (#25.72-26.3) and position papers (#26.4); notes for the debate with Ronald Reagan (#25.29); speeches (#26.11-26.16); information on specific campaign topics and state campaigns and ballot access provisions; mailing lists (#25.53-25.56); contacts with women's organizations; and papers giving the history of the campaign (#25.47-25.48). A copy of East's resignation letter is in #25.14. The folders are arranged alphabetically by folder heading.
Series IX, Other Organizations and Issues (#26.36-30.15), contains correspondence and reference material gathered in East's unofficial capacity, while employed by the federal government, and after retirement. The folders are arranged in one alphabetical sequence, intermingling subjects and organizations, and covering the years 1966 to 1987. Topics include divorce and support (#26.37-26.40); and histories of Title VII (#26.42), of women's rights (#26.43), and of the EEOC (#26.44). Organizations well-documented here include the National Organization for Women (#26.50-27.11), from its organizing conference in 1966 through its 20th anniversary in 1986 (though there is no coverage of 1981-1985); the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund (#28.1-28.21), on whose board East served from 1979 to 1983; the National Women's Political Caucus (#29.1-30.15), for which East served as legislative director (Oct. 1983 - Dec. 1986), and later liaison to a coalition working on behalf of civil rights; the Twentieth Century Fund (#27.17-27.26), whose Task Force on Women and Employment East advised; and the Women's Equity Action League (#27.34-27.36), including letters from Elizabeth Boyer on WEAL's early activities, and reasons for its founding (#27.36).
The NOW papers include correspondence (#26.50-27.5), early documents (mostly photocopies), and clippings relating to the founding of NOW and its first few years, NOW's 20th reunion (#27.11), and a few items from national conferences in 1978 and 1979. Of particular interest is Jean Faust's description of Ti-Grace Atkinson's role in NOW (#26.53).
Included in the NOW LDEF records are correspondence, East's notes taken at board meetings and other events, and information on legislation.
The NWPC records are restricted under an agreement between the NWPC and the library; written permission of NWPC's executive director or president is required for access. Included are papers from the organizing conference in 1971 (#29.1); correspondence, notes, and memos; extensive files on the abortion amendment to the Civil Rights Restoration Act (#29.7-30.11), and opposition to the nomination of Judge Robert Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court (#29.3-29.6); and information on legislation and court cases.
The records relating to the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Women and Employment (#27.17-27.26) include correspondence with and report drafts by Lenore Weitzman and recommendations by the Task Force. There are also papers concerning disagreements within the National Woman's Party (#27.12-27.14).
Series X, Photographs and Oversized Items (#PD.1-PD.16, 27.46f+), includes 13 folders of photographs received in folders containing photographs only. They include portraits of East (#PD.1), images depicting many phases of the work of the PCSW (#PD.2-PD.8), of meetings of the CACSW (#PD.9), of the NCOIWY (#PD.10-PD.11), of East at other meetings and events (#PD.12), and of Congresswomen and others, possibly including an East family member (#PD.13). There are also several folders created to contain photographs removed from correspondence folders throughout the collection; reference copies of those photographs remain in their original locations.
This series also includes one folio+ folder of oversized items removed from folders throughout the collection. Oversized items from Series I are in #1.3f.

INVENTORY

Additional catalog entries

The following catalog entries represent persons, organizations, and topics documented in this collection. An entry for each appears in the Harvard On Line Library Information System (HOLLIS) and other automated bibliographic databases. THIS IS NOT AN INDEX.
Authors
Abzug, Bella S., 1920
Alda, Alan, 1936-
Alexander, Dolores
Alexander, Shana
Allan, Virginia R.
Alsop, Stewart
Amatniek, Kathie
Anderson, John Bayard, 1922-
Anderson, Keke
Anderson, Marie, 1916-
Anguiano, Lupe
Armistead, Betty
Armstrong, Anne Legendre
Arnold, Margaret Long
Avery, Nina Belle Horton
Bambace, Angela
Bayh, Birch, 1928-
Bell, Carolyn Shaw
Berry, Betty Blaisdell
Bird, Caroline
Bolton, Roxcy
Bork, Robert H.
Bowdler, Nancy
Boyer, Elizabeth
Boyer, Gene
Bradlee, Benjamin C.
Brauer, Carl M., 1946-
Bronstein, Alvin J.
Brown, Carol
Broyhill, Joel T. (Joel Thomas), 1919-
Bunting-Smith, Mary, 1910-1998
Byrd, Harry Flood, 1914-
Califano, Joseph A., 1931-
Carabillo, Toni
Carden, Maren Lockwood
Carpenter, Liz
Ceballos, Jacqueline Michot, 1925-
Chassler, Sey
Chapman, Eugenia
Chayes, Antonia Handler, 1929-
Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women (U.S.)
Clarenbach, Kathryn F.
Clohesy, Stephanie
Colom, Audrey Rowe
Conlin, Roxanne Barton
Conable, Charlotte Williams, 1929
Cook, Marlow W. (Marlow Webster), 1926-
Crisp, Mary Dent, 1923
Curtis, Charlotte, 1928-1987
Derfner, Armand
Derian, Patricia M.
Deukmejian, George
Dewey, Ellen Sim
Doar, John, 1921-
Dorsen, David M.
Dorsen, Norman
Dungan, Ralph A. (Ralph Anthony), 1923-
Eastwood, Mary O., 1930
Edwards, Don, 1915-
Eisler, Riane Tennenhaus
Emerson, Thomas Irwin, 1907-
Falk, Gail
Falkowski, Evelyn
Farrell, Warren
Faust, Jean
Fenwick, Millicent
Fields, Daisy B.
Finch, Robert
Fisher, Joesph L.
Foreign Commissions on the Status of Women
Fox, Muriel, 1928
Fraser, Arvonne S.
Freed, Doris Jonas
Freeman, Jo
Freund, Paul Abraham, 1908-
Fuentes, Sonia Pressman
Gardner, G. H. F.
Gardner, Jo Ann Evans
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader
Glaser, Vera
Goodin, Joan
Graham, Katharine, 1917-
Graham, Richard
Grasso, Ella
Gray, Elizabeth
Gray, Mary
Griffiths, Martha Wright, 1912-
Gruberg, Martin
Gunderson, Barbara
Gutwillig, Jacqueline
Haener, Dorothy, 1917-
Hanisch, Carol
Harris, LaDonna
Harrison, Cynthia Ellen
Hartry, Bert, 1929-
Hartnett, Oonagh
Hauser, Rita
Heckler, Margaret
Heath, Kathryn Gladys, 1910-
Heide, Wilma Scott, 1921-1985
Heinz, Elise Brookfield, 1935-
Henderson, Vera S.
Hernandez, Aileen C.
Hershey, Lenore
Hickey, Margaret
Hilton, Mary N.
Hixson, Allie Corbin
Holden, Miriam Young
Hole, Judith
Howard, Bonnie Bellamy, 1928-
Indritz, Phineas
Ingersoll, Fern S.
Janeway, Elizabeth
Jeffrey, Mildred, 1911-
Johnson, Sharon Leijoy, 1934-
Johnson, Sonia
Johnstone, Susan
Jordan, B. Everett (Benjamin Everett)
Jordan, Barbara, 1936-
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss
Kantrowitz, Leo
Kaplan, Frances Balgley
Karpatkin, Rhoda
Katzenbach, Nicholas deB. (Nicholas deBelleville), 1922-
Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968
Kenyon, Dorothy, 1888-1972
Keyserling, Mary Dublin
King, Jean L.
Klos, Katharine A.
Knox, Holly
Komisar, Lucy, 1942-
Koontz, Elizabeth D. (Elizabeth Duncan), 1919-
Kreps, Juanita Morris
Lane, Laura
Leader, Shelah Gilbert, 1943-
Lee, Rex E., 1935-
Lloyd-Jones, Esther McDonald, 1901-
Long, Russell B.
Lucas, Roy
Lugar, Richard
MacLeod, Michael
Mansbridge, Jane J.
Marcy, Mildred Kester, 1913-
Marti, Elizabeth
Matthews, Shirley
McCarthy, Eugene J., 1916-
McGill, Ruth
McGovern, George S. (George Stanley), 1922-
Mealey, Margaret
Mengelkoch, Velma
Michaelis, Diana T.
Miller, Helen Hill, 1899-
Mink, Patsy T., 1927-
Mitchell, Joyce Slayton
Mitgang, Iris
Mollison, Char
Morgan, Charles Jr.
Morris, Celia
Mott, Stewart Rawlings, 1937-
Moyers, Bill D.
Murphy, Betty Southard
Murphy, Irene
Murray, Florence K.
Murray, Pauli, 1910-
National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs
National Organization for Women
National Woman's Party
National Women's Political Caucus (U.S.)
Nemser, Rudolph W.
Neuberger, Maurine Brown, 1907-
Newell, Barbara Warne
Norton, Eleanor Holmes
Novak, Michael
NOW Legal Defense & Education Fund
Noyes, Newbold, 1918-
Ogleby, Carol
O'Hanrahan, Inka
O'Reilly, Jane
Orr, Elizabeth
Palmer, Hazel
Partee, Cecil A., 1921-
Paschall, Eliza K.
Patel, Marilyn
Paxson, Marjorie Bowers, 1923-
Peterson, Elly
Peterson, Esther, 1906-
Professional Women's Caucus
Pogrebin, Letty Cottin
Purcell, Mary H.
Rawalt, Marguerite, 1895-
Reeves, Nancy, 1913-
Rendel, Margherita N.
Reston, James, 1909-
Riordan, John
Roberts, Sylvia
Roig, Helen J.
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962
Ross, Susan Deller
Rossi, Alice S., 1922-
Ruckelshaus, Jill
Russell Sage Foundation
Saiki, Patricia F., 1930-
Sandler, Bernice Resnick
Schroeder, Pat
Schweiker, Richard S. (Richard Schultz), 1926-
Scott, Ann London, 1925-1975
Scott, Anne Firor, 1921-
Segal, Phyllis N., 1945-
Shainess, Natalie
Sharwell, William
Sirica, John J. (John Joseph)
Snowe, Olympia J. (Olympia Jean), 1947-
Sommers, Tish
Sowell, Thomas, 1930-
Spain, Jayne
Spalding, Elizabeth Coxe
Spear, Joseph C.
Stapleton, Jean, 1942-
Steinem, Gloria
Stuart, Martha
Taliaferro, Ruth Smith
Thompson, Dorothy M.
Thompson, James R., 1936-
Thomson, James McIhany (c.1925-2001)
Tinker, Irene
Tower, John G. (John Goodwin), 1925-1991
Troescher, Carol
Twentieth Century Fund. Task Force on Women and Employment
United Nations. International Women's Year Secretariat
United States. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
United States. Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women--Officials and employees
United States. National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year
United States. Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
United States. President's Commission on the Status of Women
Usery, W. J., 1923-
Van Gelder, Lindsy
Walters, Barbara, 1931-
Ware, Caroline F. (Caroline Farrar),1899-1990
Warner, John W., 1927-
Wauneka, Annie Dodge, 1918-1997
Weddington, Sarah Ragle
Weitzman, Lenore J.
Welch, Mary Scott
Weyand, Ruth
Wheeler, Michael
Witter, Jean
Women's Equity Action League
Wulf, Melvin L.
Subjects
Abortion--United States
Affirmative action programs
Appointment books
Atkinson, Ti-Grace
Braden, Ina Claire, 1932-
Conroy, Catherine
Child support--United States
Civil rights--United States
Divorced women--United States
Equal pay for equal work--United States
Equal rights amendments--United States
Feminism--International cooperation
Feminism--United States
Feminism--United States--States
Feminists--United States
Friedan, Betty
Help-wanted advertising--United States
Homemakers--United States
International Women's Year, 1975
Interviews
Journalists--United States
Labor laws and legislation--United States
Lobbying--United States
Married women--United States
Mormon Church
Mormon women
National Women's Conference
Nonprofit organizations--United States
Pay equity--United States
Photographs
Politics, Practical--United States
Presidents--United States--Staff
Press and politics--United States
Schlafly, Phyllis
Sex discrimination against women--Law and legislation
Sex discrimination against women--Great Britain
Sex discrimination against women--United States
Sex discrimination in employment--United States
Speeches
Transcripts
United States. Civil Rights Act of 1964
United States. Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987
United States. Civil Service Commission--Officials and employees
United States. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
United States--Armed Forces--Women
United States. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
United States--Officials and employees
United States--Politics and government-1945-
Women employees--United States
Women government executives--United States
Women in politics--United States
Women in the civil service--United States
Women journalists--United States
Women political activists
Women--Employment--Law and legislation
Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--Australia
Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--Great Britain
Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--New Zealand
Women--Legal status, laws, etc.--United States
Women's rights

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