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MC 392; M-138

Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers of Mary Ware Dennett, 1874-1944: A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

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Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

© President and Fellows of Harvard College

Descriptive Summary

Location: Collection stored off site: researchers must request access 36 hours before use.
Call No.: MC 392; M-138
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Mary Ware Dennett, 1872-1947
Title: Papers of Mary Ware Dennett, 1874-1945
Date(s): 1874-1945
Quantity: 18.35 linear feet (43 file boxes, 1 card file) plus 5 folio+ folders, 5 oversize folders, 7 oversize volumes)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Correspondence, scrapbooks, writings, etc., of Mary Ware Dennett, suffragist, pacifist, artisan and advocate of birth control and sex education.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Accession number: 87-M133
The papers of Mary Ware Dennett were given to the Schlesinger Library in August 1987 by Dennett's son, Carleton Dennett. The collection was microfilmed as part of a Schlesinger Library/University Publications of America project.

Processing Information:

Processed: May 1989
By: Anne Engelhart

TERMS OF USE:

Access. CLOSED. Use microfilm (M-138, Part B).

Conditions Governing Use:

Copyright. Copyright in the papers created by Mary Ware Dennett is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College for the Schlesinger Library. Copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.

REEL GUIDE (M-138, Part B):

  • Folders 1-17: M-138, Reel 1
  • Folders 18-43: M-138, Reel 2
  • Folders 44-61: M-138, Reel 3
  • Folders 62-81: M-138, Reel 4
  • Folders 82-107: M-138, Reel 5
  • Folders 108-137: M-138, Reel 6
  • Folders 138a-155: M-138, Reel 7
  • Folders 156-177: M-138, Reel 8
  • Folders 178-197: M-138, Reel 9
  • Folders 198-213: M-138, Reel 10
  • Folders 214-227f+: M-138, Reel 11
  • Folders 228-247vo: M-138, Reel 12
  • Folders 248vo-276: M-138, Reel 13
  • Folders 277o-301: M-138, Reel 14
  • Folders 302v-314: M-138, Reel 15
  • Folders 315-330: M-138, Reel 16
  • Folders 331-358: M-138, Reel 17
  • Folders 359-381: M-138, Reel 18
  • Folders 382-409: M-138, Reel 19
  • Folders 410-432: M-138, Reel 20
  • Folders 433-459: M-138, Reel 21
  • Folders 460-479: M-138, Reel 22
  • Folders 480-503: M-138, Reel 23
  • Folders 504-513: M-138, Reel 24
  • Folders 514-522: M-138, Reel 25
  • Folders 523-536: M-138, Reel 26
  • Folders 537-550: M-138, Reel 27
  • Folders 551-566: M-138, Reel 28
  • Folders 567-590: M-138, Reel 29
  • Folders 591-600: M-138, Reel 30
  • Folders 601-614: M-138, Reel 31
  • Folders 615-633: M-138, Reel 32
  • Folders 634-657: M-138, Reel 33
  • Folders 658-678: M-138, Reel 34
  • Folders 679-701: M-138, Reel 35
  • Card File Box, 43-718: M-138, Reel 36
  • Preferred Citation:

    Mary Ware Dennett Papers, 1874-1947; item description, dates. MC 392, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

    Related Material:

    There is related material at the Schelsinger Library; see Mary Ware Dennett Additional papers, 1892-1945 (MC 629).

    BIOGRAPHY

    Suffragist, pacifist, artisan, and advocate of birth control and sex education, Mary Coffin (Ware) Dennett was born on April 4, 1872, in Worcester, Massachusetts, the first daughter and second of four children of George Whitefield and Livonia Coffin (Ames) Ware. She was the niece of Edwin Doak and Lucia (Ames) Mead, two noted Boston social reformers, and the grandniece of Charles Carleton Coffin, historian and war correspondent. When her father, a wool merchant, died in 1882, the family moved to Boston, where she attended public schools before enrolling in Miss Capen's School for Girls in Northampton, Massachusetts.
    Influenced in part by the "craftsman ideal" articulated by John Ruskin and William Morris, Dennett chose to study at the school of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1891-1893); for several years she won the first prize for tapestry and leather design. After heading the Department of Design and Decoration at Drexel Institute in Philadelphia (1894-1897), she went to Europe with her sister Clara. They collected samples of gilded Cordovan leather wall hangings, were able to revive the lost art, and opened a cooperative handicraft shop in Boston. Dennett helped to organize the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts in 1897 and displayed her leather work in the society's April 1899 exhibition; the Ware sisters' shop soon established an affiliation with the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts, with Dennett serving as artistic decorator for the shop and on the council of the society. She resigned in 1905, however, pointing to the society's increasing interest in "things--their beauty, their sale, their increase...while the primary interest--should be, I think,--the man--his freedom--his economic independence."
    In January 1900, Dennett married Hartley Dennett, a Boston architect; they had two sons, Carleton (b.1900) and Devon (b. 1905). At first they worked together, with Dennett as a home decorating consultant, but this ended when Hartley Dennett began an affair with one of his clients, Margaret Chase. He went to live with Chase and her husband, a prominent physician; Dennett successfully sued for divorce and received custody of the children in 1913.
    After two years as field secretary of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, Dennett was elected corresponding secretary of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1910, and moved to New York City. There she was the principal organizer of National American Woman Suffrage Association's literature department, which produced and distributed millions of copies of numerous pamphlets and leaflets, including Dennett's "The Real Point." Embroiled in a dispute over how the department was to be run and financed, and believing that National American Woman Suffrage Association, like many organizations, was showing a "tendency...to petrify and...find themselves actually behind the public opinion which they themselves largely created," Dennett resigned in 1915.
    Attracted to organizations seeking a broader redistribution of society's wealth and power, Dennett worked for implementation of the single tax, serving as chair of the Committee on New Voters of the Women's Henry George League, and in the movement for proportional representation. She was an active opponent of the growing war sentiment in the United States, managing a series of mass meetings in the Midwest as field secretary of the American Union Against Militarism, and campaigning for President Wilson's reelection. When the United States entered the war in April 1917, she protested by resigning as executive secretary of the Women's Section of the Democratic National Committee (renamed the League for Progressive Democracy); she became an organizer for the People's Council, a radical antiwar group, and a board member of the Woman's Peace Party. She was also a member of the National Council of the International Free Trade League and a member of the Women's Peace Union.
    Dennett is perhaps best known for her work in birth control and sex education. With Jessie Ashley and Clara Gruening Stillman, she founded the National Birth Control League in March 1915. The National Birth Control League repudiated the militant tactics that had forced Margaret Sanger to seek refuge from the law in Europe; it focused on changing state and federal statutes that held that any materials or printed mattter intended for preventing conception were obscene and therefore unmailable. Maintaining that birth control was a "purely scientific topic," the National Birth Control League cultivated the support of prominent men and women, and from 1917 to 1919 lobbied unsuccessfully in the state legislature in Albany to remove contraceptive material from the New York law.
    Realizing that it would be most efficient to remove contraception from the federal Comstock law, on which the state laws were based, Dennett in 1919 reorganized the National Birth Control League as the Voluntary Parenthood League, serving as its director and as editor of the Birth Control Herald. The sole purpose of the Voluntary Parenthood League was to remove the words "preventing conception" from the federal law, thereby permitting the free dissemination of information about birth control. In this the Voluntary Parenthood League was opposed by Sanger, who favored amending the law so that contraceptive information could be given out only by physicians. For Dennett, Sanger's approach smacked of special class legislation. In 1925, at the end of her last unsuccessful lobbying campaign in Congress, Dennett wrote Birth Control Laws, an exhaustive analysis of the history and status of federal and state laws governing birth control, hoping to influence public opinion. In the end, neither Sanger's "doctors only" bill nor Dennett's appeal to the "fundamental sound sense of the average American citizen" was successful in changing the law; legal relief came from the bench in the 1930s in the form of a series of decisions circumscribing federal interference with the circulation of contraceptive literature and materials.
    One of the factors contributing to the change in the legal climate was a 1930 case involving Dennett's dissemination of a pamphlet entitled "The Sex Side of Life." Written in 1915 for her adolescent sons, this no-nonsense essay explained human reproduction and described the sexual encounter as "a vivifying joy,...a vital art." It was published in 1918 and throughout the 1920s was widely distributed to individuals as well as to youth and church organizations and state health departments. The pamphlet was banned as obscene by the Solicitor of the Post Office in 1922, and in 1928, with evidence secured through the use of a decoy address, Dennett was tried under the Comstock law, convicted, and fined $300. Two years later, in the midst of nationwide public protest, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals court held that the Comstock law "must not be assumed to have been designed to interfere with serious instruction regarding sex matters unless the terms in which the information is conveyed are clearly indecent." The Dennett case was part of a series of decisions that culminated in the 1936 ruling, in United States v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries, that the Comstock law did not "prevent the importation...by mail of things which might...be employed by...physicians." (See MC 208, Morris Ernst Papers, Schlesinger Library.) This decision removed all federal bans on birth control materials and information as tools for medical professionals. Contraception was not actually removed from the prohibitions of the Comstock law until 1971.
    Her experience in the "Sex Side of Life" case as well as the overt government hostility towards pacifists during World War I heightened Dennett's interest in civil liberties issues. She published Who's Obscene?, an account of the Sex Side of Life trial, in 1930, and was active for many years on the National Council on Freedom from Censorship and with the American Civil Liberties Union.
    In 1926 Dennett abandoned her lobbying, resigned as director of the Voluntary Parenthood League, and returned to leather work as "my salvation." She nonetheless continued to follow the progress of birth control legislation through Congress and maintained her interest in sex education for young people, contributing a chapter on the subject to Sex in Civilization (1929), and publishing The Sex Education of Children (1931). She also persisted, as her voluminous correspondence attests, in responding "to all the poor applicants for contraceptive information...[writing them about] the League's inability to break the law, etc.," and "then privately and anonymously" furnishing the needed information.
    Despite her work for dozens of causes, Dennett had a "fearful revulsion" against organizations. This anti- institutional bias was philosophical as well as pragmatic, with Dennett, in the tradition of John Dewey, making no claims of moral absolutism. Hers was "a plea for the dynamic, instead of the static side of life..., against anything and everything that tends to institutionalize one's mind." For Dennett, moral law was "subject to evolution like other phases of human development," an evolution in which individual liberty and the "unquenchable aspiration of the human soul" remained paramount.
    Dennett died in a nursing home in Valatie, New York, in 1947.

    ARRANGEMENT

    The collection is arranged in five series:

    SCOPE AND CONTENT

    Mary Ware Dennett was a generous correspondent and meticulous file keeper. The essential order and arrangement of her files have been maintained; they reveal both the discipline she brought to her life and work and the variety of her interests. The collection documents her work in arts and crafts as well as her activities on behalf of various social and political reform movements. Although the bulk of the material dealing with reform chronicles her work on behalf of suffrage, birth control, and peace, other issues and organizations represented include the Twilight Sleep Association, the American Foundation for Homoeopathy, and the movements for the single tax, proportional representation, international free trade, and civil liberties.
    The collection includes personal and professional correspondence; writings; office files of the Voluntary Parenthood League; organizational material, publications, and mailings from other organizations with which she was affiliated; and photographs.
    Three of Dennett's scrapbooks (one entitled Unpublished Data re: Dennett's work; the others, Published Material, Dennett's Work, Volume 1, 1897-1918, and Volume 2, 1918-) were disassembled and their contents placed in the relevant series; they are referred to in the inventory as scrapbook 1, 2, and 3 respectively. If an item from a scrapbook was a duplicate, annotated by Dennett, and in fragile condition, the annotations were transferred to the better copy.
    Series I, Personal, includes letters to Dennett's uncle and aunt, Edwin D. and Lucia Ames Mead, from distinguished friends and colleagues; family and biographical information; photographs; material re: Dennett's divorce and custody hearings; fiction by Dennett; letters to her sons, 1911-1925; and general correspondence, arranged alphabetically. People and subjects included in general correspondence also appear in other series; see the index of correspondents at the end of this finding aid
    Series II, Arts and crafts, spans the years 1894 to 1945 and contains notebooks; lectures, clippings, and photographs re: Dennett's work at Drexel Institute; account books from her leather shop in Boston; correspondence, arranged alphabetically; and issues of Handicraft, published by the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts (BSAC). The activities of the Boston Society of Arts and Crafts and the New York Society of Craftsmen are particularly well represented.
    Series III, Suffrage, includes correspondence, and articles and clippings by Dennett and others, documenting her work with the National American Woman Suffrage Association, and the dispute with National American Woman Suffrage Association's board that eventually led to Dennett's resignation.
    Series IV, Birth control and sex education, contains office files of the National Birth Control League (NBCL) and the Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL), material from the case centering around "The Sex Side of Life," and material about her writings on birth control and sex education. The files of the Voluntary Parenthood League are arranged in two alphabetical sequences, one mostly pre-1929 and one mostly post-1929; within the Voluntary Parenthood League files are correspondence and publicity of the National Birth Control League, campaign diaries, reports, minutes, correspondence, and publications of the Voluntary Parenthood League, and letters to Dennett from men and women requesting information about contraception. Included in the SSL records are correspondence about and endorsements and orders for the pamphlet; letters to Dennett with questions about masturbation, lesbianism, and other issues concerning sexuality; and correspondence, clippings, and other material from the Mary Ware Dennett Defense Committee and her trial on obscenity charges. The remainder of the series is devoted to her writings on birth control and sex education and includes drafts, final versions, and correspondence concerning her publications; and shorter articles, advertisements, and clippings.
    Series V, Other organizations and causes, includes correspondence, publications, and other mailings from a variety of organizations. It is arranged chronologically and documents Dennett's work with the Twilight Sleep Association, the American Union Against Militarism, the Woman's Peace Party, the International Free Trade League, the League for Progressive Democracy, the People's Council, the Women's Peace Union, the American Foundation for Homoeopathy, the National Council on Freedom from Censorship, the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Consumers Union. This series also contains material on her work in the Woodrow Wilson, Morris Hillquit, and Elinor Byrns election campaigns, and in the movements for the single tax and proportional representation; and her writings on various political issues.
    Most clippings were discarded after microfilming.
    Folder headings are those of Dennett; information in brackets has been added by the processor.

    INDEX OF SELECTED CORRESPONDENTS

    This index includes the names of selected writers and recipients. Information about persons and subjects is not indexed.

    Key:

    Container List

    Additional Index Terms

    African Americans--Education--Alabama
    Architects' spouses--Massachusetts
    Art teachers
    Arts and crafts movement--United States
    Arts and society--United States
    Authors
    Birth control--Law and legislation--Great Britain
    Birth control--Law and legislation--United States
    Censorship--United States
    Childbirth--United States
    Civil rights--United States
    Contraception--United States
    Disarmament
    Divorce suits--United States
    Handicraft
    Homeopathic physicians--United States
    International trade
    Labor (Obstetrics)
    Leatherwork
    Lesbians--United States
    Lobbyists--United States
    Masturbation
    Mothers and sons--United States
    Obscenity (Law)--United States
    Peace--Societies, etc.
    Proportional representation -- United States
    Sex customs--United States
    Sex instruction
    Sex instruction for children
    Single tax
    Social reformers--United States
    Trials (Obscenity)--United States
    Women and peace--Societies, etc.
    Women--Suffrage--United States
    World War, 1914-1918--Protest movements
    Young adults--United States--Sexual behavior
    Adams, Charles Francis, 1835-1915
    Addams, Jane, 1860-1935
    Allen, Florence Ellinwood, 1884-1966
    Altgeld, John Peter, 1847-1902
    American Birth Control League
    American Civil Liberties Union
    American Foundation for Homoeopathy
    American Union Against Militarism
    Anthony, Lucy Elmina
    Ashley, Jessie
    Avery, Rachel Foster, 1858-1919
    Babcock, Caroline L. (Caroline Lexow), 1882-
    Bacon, Ann Anthony
    Bailey, Forest
    Balch, Emily Greene, 1867-1961
    Baldwin, Roger N. (Roger Nash), 1884-1981
    Barnes, Henry Elmer
    Bass, Elizabeth
    Bates, Katharine Lee, 1859-1929
    Battle, George Gordon, 1868-
    Beam, Lura, 1887-1978
    Beard, Charles Austin, 1874-1948
    Beele, Jessie F.
    Beals, Jessie Tarbox
    Bedborough, George
    Bellamy, Edward, 1850-1898
    Bernays, Hella Freud
    Drexel University of Art, Science, and Industry--Faculty
    Blackwell, Alice Stone, 1857-1950
    Blake, Katherine Devereux, 1858-1950
    Blatch, Harriot Stanton, 1856-1940
    Bliven, Bruce, 1889-1977
    Blossom, Frederick A.
    Borah, William Edgar, 1865-1940
    Brasher, Katherine Marie
    Breckinridge, Sophonisba Preston, 1866-1948
    Bromley, Dorothy Dunbar, 1896-1986
    Bronson, Sonia Joseph
    Broun, Heywood, 1888-1939
    Brown, Emmanuel
    Brown, Gertrude Foster, 1867-1956
    Bryant, Louise Stevens, 1885-1959
    Bryce, James Bryce, Viscount, 1838-1922
    Byrns, Elinor
    Cable, George Washington, 1844-1925
    Cannon, Walter B. (Walter Bradford), 1871-1945
    Capen, Bessie Tilson, 1838-1920
    Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919
    Catt, Carrie Chapman, 1859-1947
    Cerf, Bennett, 1898-1971
    Cheney, Ednah Dow Littlehale, 1824-1904
    Children's Crusade for Children
    Clarke, James Freeman, 1810-1888
    Cleghorn, Sarah Norcliffe, 1876-1959
    Consumers Union of United States
    Continental Committee on Technocracy
    Conway, Moncure Daniel, 1832-1907
    Coolidge, Grace Goodhue, 1879-1957
    Comstock, Anthony, 1844-1915
    Cutting, Bronson M., 1888-1935
    Davis, Richard Harding, 1864-1916
    De Mille, Agnes
    Deland, Margaret Wade Campbell, 1857-1945
    Dell, Floyd, 1887-1969
    Democratic National Committee (U.S.)
    Dewey, John, 1859-1952
    Dickinson, Robert Latou, 1861-1950
    Dombrowsky, James A.
    Draper, Ruth, 1884-1956
    Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963
    Duniway, Abigail Scott, 1834-1915
    Eastman, Crystal, 1881-1928
    Eddy, Sherwood, 1871-1963
    Eliot, Charles William, 1834-1926
    Elliman, Kenneth B.
    Ellis, Havelock, 1859-1939
    Engelhard, Agnes
    Ernst, Morris Leopold, 1888-1976
    Field, Evelyn
    Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, 1879-1958
    Floyd, William, 1871-1943
    Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley
    Fosdick, Harry Emerson, 1878-1969
    Funk, Antoinette
    Gale, Linn A. E.
    Gallert, Myra
    Garrison, William Lloyd, 1838-1909
    Gawthorpe, Mary
    George, Henry, 1839-1897
    Gilman, Catheryne Cooke
    Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 1860-1935
    Gillmore, Inez Haynes, 1873-1970
    Green, Julia M.
    Gruening, Ernest, 1887-1974
    Gruening, Martha
    Hale, Edward Everett, Sr., 1822-1909
    Hall, Bolton, 1854-1938
    Hallinan, Charles T.
    Hanau, Stella
    Hart, Albert Bushnell, 1854-1943
    Hay, John, 1838-1905
    Hay, Mary Garrett, 1857-1928
    Hays, Arthur Garfield, 1881-1954
    Heidelberg, Virginia P.
    Hemenway, Augustus
    Hepburn, Katharine Houghton, 1878-1951
    Heterodoxy (Club)
    Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 1823-1911
    Hillquit, Morris, 1869-1933
    Himes, Norman Edwin
    Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964
    Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1809-1894
    Hooker, Edith Houghton
    Hoover, Herbert, 1874-1964
    Howe, Julia Ward, 1819-1910
    Howells, William Dean, 1837-1920
    Hurd-Mead, Kate Campbell, 1867-1941
    Huse, P. B. P.
    Ingersoll, Charles H.
    International Free Trade League
    Jacobi, Anna Manus
    Jacobs, Aletta H. (Aletta Henriette), 1854-1929
    James, William, 1842-1910
    Jones, Eleanor Dwight
    Kendig, Isabelle V., 1889-
    Kenyon, Dorothy, 1888-1972
    Kirchwey, Freda
    Knoblauch, Mary
    Konikow, Antoinette F., 1869-
    La Follette, Fola, 1882-1970
    La Guardia, Fiorello H. (Fiorello Henry), 1882-1947
    Laidlaw, H. B. (Harriet Burton), 1874-
    Lamont, Corliss, 1902-1995
    Lane, Margaret
    Lasker, Mary
    Leach, Agnes
    League for Independent Political Action
    League for Mutual Aid
    League for Progressive Democracy
    Lindey, Alexander, 1896-1981
    Lippmann, Walter, 1889-1974
    Littledale, Clara Savage, 1891-1956
    Livermore, Mary Ashton Rice, 1820-1905
    Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1850-1924
    MacDonald, James Ramsay, 1866-1937
    Magoun, Jeanne B.
    Mander, Jane
    Marsden, Dora
    Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association
    Maule, Frances, 1879-1966
    McCasland, Vine
    McCormick, Katharine Dexter, 1875-1967
    McCulloch, Catharine Waugh, 1862-1945
    Maule, Frances, 1879-1966
    Mead, Edwin D. (Edwin Doak), 1849-1937
    Mead, Lucia True Ames, 1856-1936
    Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956
    Miller, Alice Duer, 1874-1942
    Moulton, Louise Chandler, 1835-1908
    Mudd, Emily Hartshorne
    Nash, Ogden, 1902-1971
    National American Woman Suffrage Association
    National Birth Control League
    National Committee for the Revision of the Comstock Law
    National Council on Freedom from Censorship
    National Woman's Party
    Nearing, Scott, 1883-1983
    New York Academy of Medicine
    New York Society of Craftsmen
    Norris, George W. (George William), 1861-1944
    Norton, Charles Eliot, 1827-1908
    O'Reilly, John Boyle, 1844-1890
    Overton, Walter
    Page, Mary Hutcheson, 1860-1940
    Page, Walter Hines, 1855-1918
    Palmer, Alice Freeman, 1855-1902
    Park, Alice, 1861-1961
    Parmenter, Kenneth R.
    Paul, Alice, 1885-1977
    Peabody, George Foster, 1852-1938
    Pen and Brush Club (New York, N.Y.)
    Peck, Mary Gray, 1867?-1957
    People's Council of America for Democracy and Peace
    Perkins, Frances, 1880-1965
    Pilpel, Harriet F.
    Pinchot, Gertrude M.
    Post, Alice Thatcher, 1853-1947
    Potter, Edwin S.
    Potter, Frances Squire, 1867-1914
    Putnam, George Haven, 1844-1930
    Rankin, Jeannette, 1880-1973
    Ristori, Adelaide, 1822-1906
    Rolland, Romain, 1866-1944
    Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962
    Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919
    Root, Elihu, 1845-1937
    Rublee, Juliet Barrett
    Ryan, Agnes E., 1878-1954
    Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966
    Schmalhausen, Samuel D. (Samuel Daniel), 1890-
    Schneiderman, Rose, 1882-1972
    Schulkind, Adelaide M.
    Schwimmer, Rosika, 1877-1948
    Sergio, Lisa, 1905-
    Shaw, Anna Howard, 1847-1919
    Shelly, Rebecca
    Sinclair, Upton, 1878-1968
    Smedley, Agnes, 1892-1950
    Smith, Jane Norman, 1874-1953
    Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress
    Society of Arts and Crafts (Boston, Mass.)
    Stewart, Ella Jane Seass, 1871-
    Stillman, Clara Gruening
    Stone, Hannah M. (Hannah Mayer), 1894-1941
    Stone, Harlan Fiske, 1872-1946
    Stopes, Marie Carmichael, 1880-1958
    Stowe, Lyman Beecher, 1880-1963
    Street Manual Training School
    Suttner, Bertha von, 1843-1914
    Swing, Raymond Gram, 1887-1968
    Taft, William H. (William Howard), 1857-1930
    Tarbell, Ida M. (Ida Minerva), 1857-1944
    Thomas, M. Carey (Martha Carey), 1857-1935
    Thomas, Norman, 1884-1968
    Tresca, Carlo, 1879-1943
    Twilight Sleep Association
    Upton, Harriet Taylor
    Van Doren, Dorothy, 1896-1993
    Villard, Fanny Garrison, 1844-1928
    Villard, Oswald Garrison, 1872-1949
    Voluntary Parenthood League, New York
    Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940
    Warner, Charles Dudley, 1829-1900
    Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915
    West, Rebecca, 1892-1983
    White, Sue Shelton, 1887-1943
    Whitehouse, Vira Boarman, 1875-1957
    Whittier, John Greenleaf, 1807-1892
    Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924
    Woman's Committee for Political Action
    Woman's Municipal League of the City of New York
    Woman's Peace Party
    Women's Peace Union
    Young, Art, 1866-1943

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