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B-3; M-118

Bureau of Vocational Information (New York, N.Y.). Records of the Bureau of Vocational Information, 1908-1932: A Finding Aid

Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University


Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

© President and Fellows of Harvard College

The records were reprocessed and microfilmed under a grant from Clara Schiffer.

Descriptive Summary

Location: Collection stored off site: researchers must request access 36 hours before use.
Call No.: B-3; M-118
Repository: Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University
Creator: Bureau of Vocational Information (New York, N.Y.)
Title: Records of the Bureau of Vocational Information, 1908-1932
Date(s): 1908-1932
Quantity: 9.42 linear feet (9 cartons, 1 file box) plus 2 oversize folders, 28 reels of microfilm (M-118)
Language of materials: Materials in English.
Abstract: Correspondence, questionnaires, printed material, etc., of the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations and its predecessor Bureau of Vocational Information.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Accession number: 46-9
The records of the Bureau of Vocational Information were given to the Schlesinger Library by Beatrice Doerschuk, assistant director of the Bureau of Vocational Information, in October 1946.

Processing Information:

Reprocessed: July 1987
By: Bert Hartry

Conditions Governing Access:

Access. Unrestricted. Originals are closed; use microfilm M-118.

Conditions Governing Use:

Copyright. Copyright in the records created by the Bureau of Vocational Information as well as copyright in other papers in the collection may be held by their authors, or the authors' heirs or assigns.
Copying. Papers may be copied in accordance with the library's usual procedures.


The records of the Bureau of Vocational Information were selected for microfilming because they are frequently requested by researchers and the material is in fragile condition. The film is available on interlibrary loan.
  • All dates and other information added by the processor are in square brackets.
  • The pages of some items were numbered to aid the microfilmer, the proofreader, and researchers. Blank pages were not numbered.
  • All reels were proofread by the processor and corrections made where necessary. These corrections may disrupt the sequence of frame numbers.
  • Some of the material in the collection was difficult to film, due to such problems as flimsy paper with text showing through, faint pencil notations, and creased and brittle paper. The film was carefully produced to insure that these items are as legible as possible.
  • The clippings in #510-513 were discarded after filming.
  • Photographs were microfilmed with the collection. They have also been filmed with the Schlesinger Library's photograph collection (M-54).
  • In many cases, the enclosures referred to in letters are missing.
  • The reverse sides of outdated letterhead and form letters were sometimes used by Bureau of Vocational Information staff for carbon copies, drafts, or notes; print may show through. The letter-head/printed sides were filmed only if they are not represented elsewhere in the collection, or if they contain unique text.
  • In some cases, magazines, membership directories, and other multiple-paged items were not filmed in their entirety, but only the pertinent page(s), with the title page where necessary to establish name and date of publication.
  • In a small number of cases title pages only were microfilmed to indicate the type of material Bureau of Vocational Information collected.
  • After microfilming periodicals were removed to the Schlesinger Library periodical file.
  • For a list of the contents of B-3, see the series list and inventory that follow. When requesting microfilm material, please use the microfilm number and the reel number.
  • ___Folders 1-27: M-118, Reel 1
  • ___Folders 28-51: M-118, Reel 2
  • ___Folders 52-90: M-118, Reel 3
  • ___Folders 91-105: M-118, Reel 4
  • ___Folders 106-137: M-118, Reel 5
  • ___Folders 138-151: M-118, Reel 6
  • ___Folders 152-174: M-118, Reel 7
  • ___Folders 175-197: M-118, Reel 8
  • ___Folders 198-213: M-118, Reel 9
  • ___Folders 214-237: M-118, Reel 10
  • ___Folders 238-260: M-118, Reel 11
  • ___Folders 261-283: M-118, Reel 12
  • ___Folders 284-303: M-118, Reel 13
  • ___Folders 304-333: M-118, Reel 14
  • ___Folders 334-353: M-118, Reel 15
  • ___Folders 354-374: M-118, Reel 16
  • ___Folders 375-382: M-118, Reel 17
  • ___Folders 383-392: M-118, Reel 18
  • ___Folders 393-402: M-118, Reel 19
  • ___Folders 403-408: M-118, Reel 20
  • ___Folders 409-415 M-118, Reel 21
  • ___Folders 416-427: M-118, Reel 22
  • ___Folders 428-434: M-118, Reel 23
  • ___Folders 435-442: M-118, Reel 24
  • ___Folders 435-442: M-118, Reel 25
  • ___Folders 452-469: M-118, Reel 26
  • ___Folders 470-488: M-118, Reel 27
  • ___Folders 489-513o: M-118, Reel 28
  • Preferred Citation:

    Bureau of Vocational Information Records, 1908-1932; item description, dates. B-3, folder #. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.


    The Bureau of Vocational Information of New York City was the successor to the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations (IBO). Founded in 1911-1912 by the New York alumnae associations of the Seven Sister colleges, plus those of Wells and Cornell, the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations listed the following as its purposes in its constitution:
    Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations published studies on wartime training, and on employment opportunities in a number of fields, including the civil service and scientific work. It provided employment information and advice, as well as a placement service for women. After World War I, in 1919, Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations was dissolved and Bureau of Vocational Information took over its research, information, and education functions. According to a letter (May 7, 1953) from Beatrice Doerschuk to the Radcliffe Women's Archives, "Its purpose was research in women's occupations with service and counsel both to individual women and to colleges through publication, institutes, and personal consultation of which there was a steady flow."
    Emma P. Hirth, director of Bureau of Vocational Information, wrote on December 11, 1919 (#336): "The purpose of this organization...is to gather and distribute information concerning vocational opportunities for trained women. We are engaged at the present time on three intensive studies including: a study of the opportunities for women in statistical work; a study of the law as a vocation for women; and a study of opportunities for the woman chemist."
    Bureau of Vocational Information subsequently published the three studies referred to by Emma Hirth and many others, including Positions of Responsibility in Department Stores and Other Retail Selling Organizations and Training For the Professions and Allied Occupations. Many Bureau of Vocational Information publications (also gifts of Beatrice Doerschuk), including the News-Bulletin, are available at the Schlesinger Library.
    The financial support Bureau of Vocational Information received from individuals and foundations was not sufficient to maintain it. Despite attempts to affiliate with other organizations and to reorganize, Bureau of Vocational Information was forced to close its doors in 1926. Research on secretarial work had begun in 1924 but was never completed. Beatrice Doerschuk continued to work on the subject after Bureau of Vocational Information was dissolved in 1926; she wrote a draft of "The Woman Secretary" (#503-509), but it was never published.


    The collection is arranged in four series:


    This collection contains some of the office files of the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations and Bureau of Vocational Information. The bulk of the material consists of Bureau of Vocational Information correspondence, questionnaires, and printed material, the material about secretarial work making up the largest portion. The Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations files consist mostly of the transcripts of a series of lectures (1915-1916) on vocational opportunities for women. Some of the information gathered by Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations was incorporated into Bureau of Vocational Information files in 1919 and is still to be found there. Except for the minutes of one joint meeting of the Bureau of Vocational Information Board of Managers and the Advisory Council in 1926 (#28), this collection does not include the administrative or financial records of either organization.
    The papers provide information about occupational opportunities available to women, the training required, the advantages of certain fields, and also about the people and other organizations involved in the effort to educate women about these opportunities. The employer and employee questionnaires and interviews reveal much about contemporary attitudes towards working women, and social and economic conditions for women in the 1920s.
    Beatrice Doerschuk, who was associated with Bureau of Vocational Information from 1916-1926, "reorganized" the papers (ca.1928), using Bureau of Vocational Information folder headings. Her overall arrangement and description were retained, with only minor changes.
    In researching fields of employment, Bureau of Vocational Information corresponded with and sent out many questionnaires to employers and employees. Correspondence was filed separately in some cases and with questionnaires in others. Correspondence within a folder is arranged chronologically, with the exception of exchanges of letters with an individual or an organization that were found clipped together. In folders that contain a variety of materials, these are also arranged chronologically, with undated items at the end.
    The questionnaire numbering system is not consistent. Some have more than one set of numbers; a few have no numbers. In folders in which questionnaires predominate, they are arranged numerically, with unnumbered ones at the end. Further explanations of which of the Bureau of Vocational Information numbering systems was followed appear in the inventory when necessary. Not all numbers in all folders are sequential. In some instances, Bureau of Vocational Information subdivided returned questionnaires into branches of that occupation and filed them accordingly.
    Bureau of Vocational Information detached the name portions of some of the questionnaires and filed them separately. Wherever possible they have been returned to their proper places.
    In gathering information, Bureau of Vocational Information collected a large amount of print and near-print material: e.g., publications of the United States Departments of Labor, Agriculture and Interior, the Federal Board for Vocational Education, universities and colleges, professional organizations and societies, trade associations, museums and libraries, as well as newspaper and magazine articles and reprints. Printed items that concern women's employment, education, and training specifically were retained where they were found throughout the collection. They are listed in the inventory only when the entire contents of a folder are printed. Items dealing with various occupations in a general way, and readily available on microfilm or at other repositories (e.g., reprints, clippings, government publications), were discarded. Printed items dealing with occupations in a general way, but less likely to be available, were given to an appropriate repository.
    Newspaper clippings, with the exception of enclosures, were removed from all folders and filmed separately at the end of the collection (Series IV). The inventory indicates which folders included clippings.
    Although questionnaires, correspondence, and printed items make up the bulk of this collection, such other items as interviews, office notes, lists, bibliographies, lectures and reports are also present in many folders. The inventory is not exhaustive, listing only the items that make up the bulk of the material in each folder, or what seem to be particularly significant items.
    Series I, Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations, includes one folder of publications by and about Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations and a lecture course, "Women in Industry: Her Opportunities in Business Today," which is arranged chronologically.
    Series II, Bureau of Vocational Information, includes most issues of the News-Bulletin (1922-1926), and the files on occupations containing correspondence, questionnaires, printed material, etc. These files are arranged alphabetically by the name of the occupation, ending with sections entitled "Unclassified" and "Women (general)."
    Series III, the Bureau of Vocational Information Study of Secretarial Work includes employee and employer questionnaires and correspondence, information about the statistical analysis of the questionnaires, correspondence with individuals and agencies involved in the study, and the draft of "The Woman Secretary." Employee questionnaires are arranged alphabetically by state. Within folders, questionnaires are arranged numerically and correspondence chronologically. On many of the questionnaires there are small numbers in the margins and elsewhere on the page. These were written in red ink and were evidently added by Bureau of Vocational Information to facilitate the evaluation and analysis of the responses. The correspondence with cooperating agencies and individuals is arranged alphabetically according to the order used by Bureau of Vocational Information.
    Series IV, Clippings. These were removed from #43-368, arranged numerically by folder, and so identified.

    Container List

    Additional Index Terms

    Arts--Vocational guidance
    Clerical occupations
    College graduates--Vocational guidance
    Department stores--Employees
    Educational counseling
    Home economics
    Industrial welfare
    Labor supply--United States--20th century
    Occupational training for women
    Scientists--Vocational guidance
    Self-employed women
    Social service
    United States--Social conditions--20th century
    Women artists
    Women clergy
    Women college graduates
    Women in agriculture
    Women in engineering
    Women in industry
    Women in medicine
    Women in science
    Women in the professions
    Women lawyers
    Women social workers
    Women scientists
    Women statisticians
    Women--United States--Economic conditions
    Women--United States--Social conditions
    Women--Vocational guidance
    Women's exchanges
    Andrews, Irene Osgood, 1877-
    Baker, George Pierce, 1866-1935
    Beard, Mary Ritter, 1876-1958
    Bonstelle, Jessie, 1871-1932
    Breckinridge, Sophonisba Preston, 1866-1948
    Bureau for Part Time Work (New York, N.Y.)
    Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women (Cleveland, Ohio)
    Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women (Philadelphia, Pa.)
    Bureau of Vocational Occupations (New York, N.Y.)
    Bureau of Vocational Service (Los Angeles, Calif.)
    Butcher, Theodora S.
    Collegiate Bureau of Occupations (Chicago, Ill.)
    Collegiate Bureau of Occupations (Denver, Colo.)
    Collegiate Vocational Bureau (Pittsburgh, Penn.)
    Cooperative Bureau for Women Teachers
    Corre, Mary P.
    Cummings, Frances
    Davis, Katharine Bement, 1860-1935
    De Forest, Nora Stanton Blatch
    Doerschuk, Anna Beatrice, 1879-1974
    Dreier, Mary E. (Mary Elisabeth), 1875-1963
    Frederick, Christine, 1883-1970
    Gachet, Rochelle Rodd
    Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 1860-1935
    Gowin, Enoch Burton, 1883-
    Hansl, Eva Elise vom Baur, 1889-1978
    Hasse, Adelaide Rosalia, 1868-1953
    Hausam, Winifred M.
    Hirth, Emma P.
    Industrial Information Service (New York, N.Y.)
    Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations
    Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1864-1952
    Kennon, Anne Byrd
    Lathrop, Julia Clifford, 1858-1932
    League for Business Opportunities for Women, New York
    Morton, Rosalie S. (Rosalie Slaughter), 1876-1968
    Moskowitz, Belle Lindner Israels, 1877-1933
    National Committee of Bureaus of Occupations
    National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs
    Odencrantz, Louise C. (Louise Christine), 1884-1969
    Porritt, Marjory W.
    Rembaugh, Bertha, 1876-1940
    Richmond, Mary Ellen, 1861-1928
    Roberts, Mary Fanton, 1861-1956
    Rosenstiel, Mildred
    Schauffler, Mary
    Southern Women's Educational Alliance
    Van Kleeck, Mary, 1883-1972
    Vermilye, Kate Jordan, 1871-1926
    Vocation Bureau (Cincinnati, Ohio)
    Vocation Bureau (Pasadena, Calif.)
    Vocational Adjustment Bureau, Inc., New York
    Wald, Lillian D., 1867-1940
    Williams, Anna Wessels, 1863-1954
    Woman's Occupational Bureau (Minneapolis, Minn.)
    Women's Educational and Industrial Union (Boston, Mass.)
    Women's Employment Service (Pittsburgh, Penn.)
    Women's University Club (Los Angeles, Calif.)
    Women's Vocational Alliance (Los Angeles, Calif.)
    Young Women's Christian Association