Hooton, Earnest Albert, 1887-1954. Papers of Earnest A. Hooton, 1926-1954 (inclusive)
: A Finding Aid
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Archives, Harvard University
© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Location: Peabody Museum Archives
Call No.: 995-1
Repository: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Archives, Harvard University
Creator: Earnest A. Hooton
Title: Papers of Earnest A. Hooton 1926-1954.
Quantity: 12 linear feet
Abstract: The Earnest A. Hooton papers include correspondence and manuscripts relating to Hooton's
research activities as curator at the Peabody Museum and member of the Department
These papers were a gift of Earnest A. Hooton and the Department of Anthropology, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
Elizabeth Sandager March 1995;
- W.W. Howells Papers, 995-15
- Anthropometric Data Survey, Department of Anthropology,
Earnest Albert Hooton was born in Clemansville, Wisconsin on November 20, 1887. After graduating from Lawrence College (Appleton, Wisconsin ) in 1907, he won a Rhodes Scholarship, but went first to the University of Wisconsin to receive an M.A. in classics in 1908 and a Ph.D. in 1911. While working on his Ph.D., his interest in anthropology was piqued by a classical
book on tribes. At Oxford University, Hooton received a diploma in anthropology in 1912 and the B.Litt. in the same subject in 1913. He joined the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University as instructor in 1913. He married Mary Beidler Camp in 1913.
Hooton's first major archaeological excavation took place in the Canary Islands in 1915, where he researched the ancient Guanche people as part of a collaborative North African
expedition with Oric Bates (Bates studied Berber populations). With his wife, Mary Beidler Camp, Hooton established
his focus on physical anthropology: biological, racial, and geographic origins of
ethnic groups. Hooton's career subsequently included research on the skeletal biology
of prehistoric peoples, the relationship between criminal tendencies and physical
characteristics; and the anthropology of individuals, or "constitutional studies,"
in which he used a modified version of Sheldon's somatotyping in attempts to prove
a relationship between body form and behavior.
Hooton supervised a number of Peabody Museum --Harvard University Department of Anthropology
expeditions, in which both archaeological and ethnographic work was done on single
populations, such as the well known "Irish Survey" of the 1930s. He also pioneered
a "data-crunching" statistics lab supported by IBM and the Rockefeller Institute using
punch cards for data storage in the 1950s. This lab was instrumental in establishing
his applied physical anthropology applications in the business community. As well,
Hooton published on the importance of primate studies--what would later be the almost
ubiquitous inclusion of primatology in anthropology departments by his former students.
The interests of his former students helped define the range of physical anthropology
as a major discipline well into the 1950s. Hooton died in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 3, 1954 at the age of 67, a member of many distinguished professional organizations and the
recipient of numerous awards and honors.
- Giles, Eugene. "E.A. Hooton," in Winters,
Christopher, ed. 1991. International Dictionary of Anthropologists. N.Y.:
Garland Publishing, pp. 303-304.
- Howells, W.W. "Memoriam-Earnest Albert
Hooton," American Journal of Physical Anthropology vol. 12 (1954), pp.
- Ley, Ronald. "From the Caves of Tenerife to the Stores of the Peabody
Museum," Anthropology Quarterly 52 (5) 1979, pp. 160-64.
Series I Correspondence: most of the correspondence is addressed to Hooton in his
dual role as curator and faculty member. A significant portion concerns funding sources
(e.g. Social Science Research Council and Armed Forces), Museum lab equipment and
operation, and Museum fieldwork, as well as Harvard appointments and recommendations
of students. The papers also include professional correspondence with colleagues (e.g.,
Franz Boas and A.L. Kroeber) concerning Hooton's research in physical anthropology
and the sharing of information on research methods and theory (for example, on methods
of racial analysis). Along with grant applications, this material appears to be integral
to an understanding of the anthropometric data collected by Hooton and various fieldworkers.
A small but significant portion of the correspondence concerns Hooton's involvement
in professional organizations (such as the American Association of Physical Anthropology),
and eugenics and public health organizations (such as the Sterilization League); Hooton's
publishing and lecturing activities; and "fan mail," i.e., responses to Hooton's popular
writings. Responses to these writings were addressed to Hooton as a leading authority
of the time on the issues of "racial anthropology," body build and behavior, criminal
anthropology, human evolution and the methods and statistics of physical anthropology.
Occasionally, the correspondence files include original manuscripts of essays, book
reviews, and scholarly and popular articles.
Series II Manuscripts: this series includes 68 pieces of Hooton's writing and reflects
his interest in the relationship of physical anthropology to cultural anthropology.
- Series: I.Correspondence
- Box 1
- "A" General correspondence
- "A" General correspondence (professional societies)
- American Defense-Harvard Group
- American Eugenics Society
- American School of Prehistoric Research: correspondence, 1931-1941
- The "Angel" (Maurice Tillet)
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists: correspondence, 1937-1938
- Box 2
- American Association of Physical Anthropologists: correspondence,
- Arizona/Andean Expedition
- Ashley-Montague: correspondence, 1931-1949
- Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (C.G. Woodson) [see also "Negro"
for additional Woodson correspondence]
- "B" General correspondence
- Box 3
- "Ba-Bi" General correspondence
- "Bi-Bu" General correspondence
- Benthall, Gotty (re: "Indian skull" PM acc. #39-73)
- Birthright, Inc. (C.M.Goethe)
- Box 4
- "C" General correspondence
- Box 5
- "C" General correspondence (cont. from Box 4)
- Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study
- Canada re: "Indians & Eskimos," 1935
- Case Institute of Technology
- Century of Progress, 1934
- Ceylon (males, anthropometric data)
- Chase, Thurston-Commonwealth Fund
- Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques
- Box 6
- Constitutional Project (Commonwealth Fund)
- Coon, C.S. : correspondence and portrait
- Count, Earl W., correspondence, 1940-1953; draft
- Crawford (re: George Grant MacCurdy obituary by Hooton)
- "D" General correspondence
- Box 7
- Demos. A. (Anthropoid Ape Research)
- "D" General correspondence
- Division of Anthropology: Plans for lab (re: development of Rm. 55 as osteo lab/exhibit
- Dept. of Anthropology, 1941
- Deavenport, C.B., 1941-1944
- Box 8
- Embree, Edwin-Julius Rosenwald Fund
- Eugenics (Sterilization League and Dept. of Genetics)
- "F" General correspondence
- "F" General correspondence
- Box 9
- "G" General correspondence
- Gates, R. Ruggles-International Eugenics Congress
- Box 10
- Gillen, John (re: Caribbean study)
- Graves, Wm. W. (re: criminal study)
- Gregory, William--American Museum of Natural History
- Box 11
- "H" General correspondence
- Box 12
- Harvard Alumni Association
- Harvard Bureau of International Research re: Day's study, etc.)
- Day's study
- Research in progress
- Research and applied anthropology at Harvard
- Harvard Dept. of Anthropology--See "Dept. of Anthropology"
- Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin
- Harvard University--General
- Herskovitz--Northwestern University
- Box 13
- Hertzeberg, H.T.E. -- U. of Kentucky
- E. A. Hooton vitae, appointment letters, etc.
- Hooton family -- photos of marker
- "I" General correspondence
- Irish Philosophical Society grant
- Box 14
- "Ja-Je" General correspondence
- "Jo-Ju" General correspondence
- Jayne, Horace -- U. of Pennsylvania
- Jenks, A.E. -- U. of Minnesota
- Judd, Neil -- Smithsonian
- "K" General correspondence
- Kidder, A.V. (also H. H. Kidder, Alfred Kidder II)
- Box 16
- "L" General correspondence
- Lasker, Gabriel; American Association of Physical Anthropologists
- Lowell Lectures, 1938
- Box 17
- "M"General correspondence
- Box 18
- Mechling (re: PM elevator)
- Movie (MGM): correspondence, script
- "N" General correspondence
- Box 19
- National Academy of Sciences (re: population studies)
- National Research Council
- Nissen, Henry L. -- Yale Lab. of Primate Biology
- Box 20
- "O" General correspondence
- Orthopedic Surgeon Council
- "P" General correspondence
- Box 21
- Phillips: "What Shall We do With Germany & Japan?" mss. by Hooton
- "Primate Book" (Man's Poor Relations)
- "Q" General correspondence (includes E.M. Quinby), 1944-1947
- "R" General correspondence, 1934-1947
- Box 22
- Remington Arms Company, 1944
- Box 23
- "Sa" General correspondence
- "Sc" General correspondence
- "Se" General correspondence
- "Sh" General correspondence
- "Si" General correspondence
- "Sk-Sl" General correspondence
- "Sm" General correspondence
- "Sn" General correspondence
- "So-Sp" General correspondence
- "Sr" General correspondence
- "St" General correspondence
- "Su-Sy" General correspondence
- Sapir, Edward, correspondence and draft of eulogy, 1938-1939
- Sayles, E. B., correspondence and report, re: Cochise study, 1940
- Schultz, Adolph, 1935-1951
- Seltzer, Carl 1934-1952
- Senyurek, Muzaffer Suleyman, 1937-1953
- Shapiro, Harry, 1940-1950
- Box 24
- Shimkin, Demitri, 1948-1954
- Snow, Charles, 1942-1946
- Social Science Research Council:
- Proposal for criminal study,
- Budgets, invoices, payrolls,
- Stanford University, re: Raymond Fred West lectures
- State Dept. (US), 1946-1948
- Stefansson, Vilhjalmur (see "Grants files" under Stefansson)
- Steggerda, Morris 1945-1950
- Stevens, David H. (Rockefeller Fdn.), 1933-1937
- Stewart, T.D., Smithsonian Institution, 1937-1941
- Study of Sex Variants, Committee for
- Box 25
- "T" General correspondence
- Thomas, Sidney, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Office of Indian Affairs (re: mixed race study
on Cheyenne River Sioux, 1935-1936
- Tildesley, M.L. Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques
- Trevor, J. C., Galton Laboratory, 1935-1938
- Tufts College, 1951
- "U" General correspondence
- Box 26
- "V" General correspondence
- "W" General correspondence
- Box 27
- "XYZ" General correspondence
- RESTRICTED: Letters of recommendation
- Series: II. Manuscripts
- Box 1 Lectures and writings
- 1.2. "The Negro in Human Evolution and American Civilization"
- 1.3. "The Future Quality of American People"
- 1.5. "Our Ancestors, or What One Anthropologist Does Not Know About Growth"
- 1.6. "Evolution and Devolution of Face"
- 1.7. "Diverse Shapes of Men"
- 1.8. "Man's Organism and Behavior--State Dept."
- 1.9. "Anthropology and Orthodontia"
- 1.10. "Science and Youth"
- 1.11. "Rise and Decline of Man"
- 1.12. "Human Heredity--or Forbidden Fruit on the Tree of Knowledge"
- 1.13. "Normal Types of Men and How to Spot Them"
- 1.14. "The Pathology of Nations"
- 1.15. "An Anthropologist Ruminates on Dentition and Devolution"
- 1.16. "The Rise and Decline of Man" (unused)
- 1.17. "The Wages of Biological Sin"
- 1.18. "Future Quality of the American People"
- 1.19. "Human Biology in Post-War Education"
- 1.20. "A Scientist Looks at the Race of Supermen"
- 1.21. "Litters of Illiterates"
- 1.22. "Noses, Knowledge, and Nostalgia"
- 1.23. "Swords into Ploughshares" (Woman's Home Companion)
- 1.24. "Man's Debt to the Ape"
- 1.25. "An Anthropological Appraisal of the Jewish People"
- 1.26. "Should Racial Differences be Denied or Disregarded in a Democracy?"
- 1.27. "Anthropology of the European Belligerents"
- 1.28. "War" (Associated Press feature, 10/10/39)
- 1.29. "The Skeleton of the Devil" (Boston Book Fair)
- 1.30. "Prospect for the Study of Human Constitution" (American Health Association, Boston,
- 1.31. "The Present Human Depression--Is It Biological?" (Sterilization League of New Jersey)
- 1.32. "Our Physical Fitness for Defense" (American Defense, Harvard Group, 1941)
- 1.33. "The Anthropological Prospect of the Survival of Human Liberty" (Harvard Discussion
- 1.34. "Plain Statements About Race"
- 1.35. "Abstract of Homo-sapiens--Whence and Whither?" -
- 1.37. "The Biology of Primitive Human Societies"
- 1.38. "Notes on Five Texas Crania"
- 1.39. "Marett Festshrift" article
- 1.41. "An Anthropologist Looks at Medicine"
- 1.42. "Stature, Head Form, and Pigmentation of Adult Male Irish"
- 1.43. "Vanuxem Princeton Lectures"
- 1.44. "Anthropology and Democracy"
- 1.45. "The Lanern of Diogenes"
- 1.46. "The Good Shepherd of Maya Studies" and "The Little Children of the Sacred Cenote"
- 1.47. "Change and Decay in Americans"
- 1.48. "What an Anthropologist Does Not Know About Man" (NY Times Book Fair)
- 1.49. "Why is an Author?" (WEEI-Author Program Radio broadcast)
- 1.50. "What Shall We do to be Saved?" (Kansas City, Feb. 19, 1937"
- 1.51. "Hip-Hop-Hippocrates! or An Anthropological Seer for Medical Science"
- 1.52. "Proposal of an Institute for the Study of Well Human Beings"
- 1.53. "The Simian Basis of Human Mechanics: Ape to Engineer"
- 1.54. "Biology and Fossil Man"
- 1.55. "The Harvard Anthropological Survey of Ireland"
- 1.57. "Man as Director of Human Evolution"
- 1.58. "Apes, Men, and Teeth"
- 1.59. "The Anthropology of the Invalid"
- 1.60. "The Upstart of the Animal Kingdom"
- 1.61. "What is an American?"
- 1.62. "The Harvard Anthropometric Lab at a Century of Progress Exposition"
- 1.63. "The Biology of Primitive Human Societies"
- 1.64. "Preliminary Remarks on the Anthropology of the American Criminal"
- 1.65. "The Stone Age Races of Kenya"
- 1.66. "Development and Correlation of Research in Physical Anthropology at Harvard"
- 1.67. "The Relation of Physical Anthropology to Cultural Anthropology"
- 1.68. "Princeton Body and Behavior" lectures