Hemenway Expedition Records 1886-1914: A Finding
Peabody Museum Archihves
©2001 The President and
Fellows of Harvard College
Repository: Peabody Museum Archives
Call No.: 43-39A, 46-73, 13-26, 980-2, 2000.20,
Location: PM Archives
Title: Hemenway Expedition
Creator: Peabody Museum; Old
South Church (Boston)
Quantity: 5.5 linear feet (11 boxes);
1 map case drawer
Expedition Records consist of six different accessions from varied sources. Some of
materials accompanied artifact collections that were not accessioned until 1946, although
arrived at the museum between 1886 and 1889. In 1977 Hemenway documentation on artifacts
transferred to the museum in 1930 was found in the Old South Church in Boston and this documentation was transferred to and accessioned by the
Museum in 1980. In 1913 and 1914 Mary's son Augustus Hemenway commissioned Charles Clark Willoughby and Mr. R. G. Fuller for an archaeological expedition to Arizona; the documents from this expedition
are also included in the Hemenway Expedition Records. The Fewkes Accretion is made
material that were transferred from the Tozzer Library to the museum in 2000 and 2001.
materials came to the library when it was part of the museum in 1912 and 1931, and
when the Tozzer was built in 1977. The Tozzer Special Collections "returned" the two
and publication to the museum archives because the materials relate directly to museum
holdings from the Expedition.
In 1879, Frank Hamilton Cushing, a leading Smithsonian
ethnologist, was asked by the Bureau of American Ethnology to join
a collecting expedition that traveled to the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico. Here Cushing became convinced that a long-term stay
was necessary to conduct his research using pioneering anthropological methodologies
participant-observer and the uniqueness of the "Zuni idea" of culture (Haskell, 1993,
p. 10). The
Hemenway Expedition to the Southwest was conceived in the summer of 1886, after Cushing
sent an appeal to Mrs. Mary Hemenway of Boston. Mary Hemenway
was an outstanding philanthropist who passionately supported historic preservation
many and varied educational efforts, and "a perspective from which to cope with the
changes of a new urban and industrial order (ibid, pp.5-6)." Cushing's enthusiasm
concept that "archaeology is simply ethnology carried back into prehistoric times"
persuaded Hemenway that this would be an expedition worth backing to the tune of an
investment of $100,000.
The Hemenway Expedition focused on the ethnological, the
anthropological, the historical, and the archaeological. The Expedition arrived in
New Mexico in
December 1886, went to Arizona to excavate in January of 1887,
and returned to Zuni in June 1888. During that time Cushing and the other expedition
(Cushing's wife Emily Magill, his sister-in-law and artist Margaret Magill, anthropologist Dr. Herman F.C. ten
Kate, historian Dr. Adolf Bandelier, topographer and
field manager Charles Garlick, general secretary and draftsman Frederick Webb Hodge, and comparative anatomist Dr.
J.L. Wortman) excavated eleven sites, including thirty-four compounds at Los Muertos while conducting ethnographic research among the local populations. In May of 1889 Jesse Walter Fewkes, a classmate of
Mary's son Augustus, was appointed supervisor of digging, and soon took over the expedition
due to Cushing's failing health. In 1891 Fewkes moved the expedition to Hopi. The Hemenway Expedition continued until 1894 when Mary Hemenway died at
Mary Hemenway's son Augustus funded another expedition to Arizona in
1913-14. This expedition was archaeological in nature. Hemenway hired Charles Clark
Willoughby and R. G. Fuller to explore various Chinlee Valley sites including Mesa
- Haskell, Susan H. 1993. "Mary Hemenway and the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition." Unpublished mss., Peabody Museum, Collections Department Reference Files.
- "Chronology of the Hemenway Expedition." in Journal of the Southwest 37 (4) Winter 1995:
- Walters, Kim. Library Director, Braun Research Library, Southwest
Museum. Personal communication, February 6, 2001.
The Hemenway Expedition Records reveal the working relationships in
field correspondence between expedition members and with Mary Hemenway; the intellectual
products of the work in Cushing, Bandelier, and ten Kate's ethnological manuscripts;
and the raw
data of site notes and cards, reports, plans, and field notebooks. The records also
contain some of
Margaret Magill's watercolors of archaeological artifacts. The materials are organized
by chronological accession and then according to type, i.e. correspondence, field
The materials are arranged in three records groups:
A. Hemenway Expedition Records 1884-1894; B. Augustus Hemenway Expedition to Arizona
Records 1912-1914; and, C. the Fewkes Accertion 1891-95. Within the groups, physical
arrangement is chronological and by content. The records are described in the following
according to content and format:
A. Hemenway Expedition
- I. Cushing manuscripts (Zuni folklore)
- III. Correspondence
- IV. Field notes and reports
- V. Illustrations, plans, lists, and card files
- VI. Maps
B. Augustus Hemenway Expedition to Arizona Records
- I. Correspondence
- II. Notes and drawings
- III. Report and Publication
- 2001.7 Madrid Exposition Publication 1895
- 2000.20.1 Field notebook 1891
- 2000.20.2 "Tusayan studies" notebook
- Peabody Museum Director Records - F. W. Putnam [Box 6.6: Berlin Congress (Congress
International des Americanistes Berlin) 1890 card file of Hemenway Collection artifacts
exhibit [in F. Cushing's hand], with published congress program], PM Archives
- A.M. Stephen Catalogue of the Keam Collection 43-39A, PM Archives
- Bandelier Collection of Manuscripts [copies] relating to Indians of the American Southwest,
1602-1845, Tozzer Library, Harvard University
- Records of the Peabody
Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology, Harvard University. Office of the Director:
correspondence of F.W. Putnam, 1883-1886 (1 box) Harvard Archives: UAV 677.45
- Papers of Frederic Ward Putnam. Harvard Archives: HUG1717.xx
Related Archival Collections:
- Frank H. Cushing Papers,
Huntington Free Library
- Hemenway Family Papers [MH-122], Peabody-Essex
Institute, Salem, MA
- [Fewkes letterbook 1889-1891] Manuscript 4480 (92),
Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives
Related PM Artifact Collections:
- Hemenway Collection: accession
numbers 90-25, 94-36, 95-30, 96-26, 04-29, 07-20, 08-30, 09-4, 12-74, 13-26, 14-35,
19-13, 20-18, 21-9, 22-5, 25-28, 25-47, 26-56, 27-3, 30-69, 31-8, 32-14, 43-39, 44-8,
44-10, 44-11, 44-12, 44-13, 44-35, 45-25, 46-73, 969-8, 975-67, 979-4, 980-2
- Keam Collection 43-39
- Julian Scott Paintings and Drawings 94-36
- A. Hemenway Expedition Records
- Series: I. Cushing manuscripts (Zuni folklore)
- "How the Coyote and the Woodpecker Made
Comrades of Each Other"
- 1.1-2 pp. 1-90; pp. 91-195 [holograph copy of original]
- 1.3-4 pp. 1-100; pp. 101-221 [holograph copy]
- 1.6original vol. 11 with typescript transcription
- Zuni folklore
- 1.7a "The Woman Whose Vulvae Were Toothed"
- 1.7b "How the Turtle
Duped the Coyote"
- 1.7c "The Hermit Gambler"
- 1.7d "The Ravens Who Raced With Their Eyes"
- 1.7e "The Magic Hunters of the War Gods"
- 1.7f "The Race of the Gopher"
- 1.7g "The Old Tarantula Who Stripped a Swift
- 1.7h "The Rabbit
- 1.8i The Story of
Tenatsali with Introduction [typescript & holograph versions]
- 2.1a "Dancing Tarantula and the Ball Rolling Beetle"
- 2.1b "How the Priest of the Prairie Dogs Averted a
- 2.1c "Warrior Child
of the Rain Gods"
- 2.1d "Coyote and the Tip Beetle"
- 2.1e "Kolowissi or the Serpent of the Sea"
- 2.1f "How the Corn Pests Were Ensnared and a Poor Youth Married a
- 2.1g "The
Foster Child of the Deer"
- 2.1h "How a Coyote Danced and Flew with the Blackbirds"
- 2.1i "The Coyote and the Singing Locust"
- 2.1j "The Story of the Poor Turkey
- 2.1 k"The Youth and
His Eagle" 2 copies
- 2.1l "How the
Brothers Ahayuta Stole the Thunder and Lightening"
- 2.1m "The Coyote and the Children of the Sacred Kyamakyakwe
- 2.1n "How a Coyote
Danced with the Burrowing Owls"
- 2.1o "How Rattlesnakes Came to be What They Are"
- 2.1p "The Warrior Suitor of Moqui"
- 2.1q "How the Ugly Wild Boy Drove the Bear
from the Southeastern Mesa"
- Series: II.
- 2.7 catalogue of
artifacts #1-800 [ca.1886-87]
- 2.8a Halonawan catalogue #4925-#5220 (Ed P. Gaston) 10/19-20/1888
- 2.8b Halonawan catalogue #4745-4924
- 2.8c Heshota Uthla catalogue #5221-5451 10/25/1888-12/14/1888
- Series: III.
- 3.5 2 holograph
copies of Cushing letter to Morse, 11/9/1888; Baxter letter to the editor of Science 12/30/1888
- 9.1 Inventory of documents, n.d. 2pp.
- 9.2 Vilas to Cushing 1889; Stockslager to Vilas 1889 1p,; 2pp.
- 9.3 Cushing to ?, n.d.4pp. typescript
- 9.4 Dewey, Mary E.
"Account of Zuni Visit to Mary Hemenway House, Summer 1886"18 pp.
- 9.5 Fewkes to Mary Hemenway 1890-91; to Stone 18914 items; 8pp.
- 9.6-8 Stephen to M
Hemenway 1893-943 items
- 9.9 Moqui Tribe
to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, n.d.; Fewkes to Mary Hemenway, n.d. fragments
- 9.10 Stephen to M Hemenway
Date: 1892-944 items
- Series: IV. Field notes and reports
- 2.2 site notebooks with map
data; copy of "Los Muertos I: Location and Ground Plan of Ruins," n.d.
- 2.3 notes for artifact catalog 3/31/1888-5/17/1888Cushing to Hodge, but transcribed in
- 2.4 Baxter report on reconnaissance trip to Florence 4/17/1888;
Hodge letter to Baxter
- 2.5 Baxter Expedition diary (Cushing)
Date: 1886-88 with plan of ruins near Zuni3 copies
- 3.1-2 Cushing, F., field notes and journal
Date: 1887-883 copies typescript with photocopy of same
- 3.3 Cushing field
Date: 1886-88photocopy of holograph
- 3.4 "Outline Report on the Origin, Working
Hypothesis and Preliminary Researchs of the Hemenway SW Expedition," Berlin Meeting
of the Congress des Americanistes
- 3.6 Bigelow notes and maps with corrections by Cushing; pen & ink drawings of
petroglyphs/pots/pottery designs (c.
Date: 1886)17 drawings
- 3.7a "Somatological Observations on
Indians of the Southwest" Dr. ten Kate June 1890
- 3.7b "Report on Visit to Pima Village" Dr. ten Kate
- 3.7c "Report on Papagoes" Dr. ten Kate
Date: 4/6-5/5 1888
- 3.8 "Preliminary Report on. . .El Moro" Bandelier
- 3.9Bandelier to Cushing on
"Seven Cities of Cibola"
- 9.10Stephen fieldwork report on the
Hemenway Expedition 1892-93
Date: 10/23/188636pp. typescript
- Series: V. Illustrations, plans, lists and cards files
- 4.1object lists 1900, 1919, n.d.
- 4.2sketch plan of the Cliff Ruin in Canon de
Muertos, AZ, n.d.2 sheets
- 4.3manuscript and
plates for "A Study of the Orange Ware..." (from Keam Collection) Williams, n.d.
- Site Cards Boxes 5-7 of 10
- Box 6Los Muertos 56031-55400, 2293-4651; Los Acequias 85-129; 3141-3619
- Box 7Los Canopas; Los Hornos; Casa Grande; Los Guanacos
- Box 8-9 Magill
watercolors of vessels
- Box 10 of 10Hopi Ethnological Collection analysis cards, n.d.
Muertos Maps and Plans, n.d.
- 260.2 Goodwin map of Los Muertos colored by Margaret Magill
- 260.3 Hodge & Garlick map
- 260.5 Ruin I - northwest construction
- 260.8 Ruin I - points
- 260.13a Ruin IV/V - large
- 260.13b Ruin IV/V - small
- 260.13c Ruin IV/V - "very different"
- 260.15b Ruin VII - pink
- 260.22b Ruin XX - fragment
- 260.28a-b El Pueblo de los Hornos - Hodge May 2, 1887/Howard 1985 2 copies printed
- 260.29a-b El Pueblo de los Hornos - Hodge May 2, 1887/Howard 19862 copies printed
13-26 Augustus Hemenway Expedition to Arizona (Willoughby & Fuller) Records, 1913-14
- Series: I. Correspondence
- 9.12a Ass't Sec. of Interior to F. W. Putnam re: permission to
examine and excavate ruins in Chinlee Valley June 6, 19132 copies
- 9.12b F. W. Putnam to Sec. of Interior re: thanks for permission
July 25, 19132 copies
- 9.12c C. C.
Willoughby c. 1913 re: results of survey of Chinlee; need to extend permit to 1914
- 9.12d F. W. Putnam to Sec. of Interior
re: survey of Chinlee Valley, west and northwest of Canon del Muerto April 6, 1914
- 9.12e F. W. Putnam to Secretary,
Smithsonian re: survey, no excavation of Chinlee April 6, 1914
- Series: II. Notes and drawings
- 9.12f Fuller, R. G. "Notes. Ruins of the Mesa Verde," n.d.
- 9.12gFuller, R. G. & C. C. Willoughby. "Notes
and Sketches. Ruins in Tsi-on-i-tso-se Canyon, near Chinlee, AZ." 1913
- 9.12h [Fuller, R. G. & C. C. Willoughby]. "Arizona"
[85204, 85222-236], 1913
- Series: III. Report and
- 9.12i 47th Report of the Peabody Museum 1912-13 (report of August 1913
reconnaissance of the Tseonitsosi Canon and Chinlee Valley)
- 9.1j "Uniform Rules and
Regulations to carry out the Act for Preservation of American Antiquities." 34 STAT. L.
225 June 8, 1906
- C. Fewkes
- 2000.20.1Fewkes, J. Walter.Hemenway Expedition field notebook 1891
Gift of Fewkes, 1931.
- 2000.20.2Fewkes, J. Walter. "Tusayan studies" notebook 1891 Disbound; fragile.
Gift of Fewkes, 1931.