Hell Gap Expedition Records 1961-68
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Archives, Harvard University
© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Call No.: 63-38
Repository: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Archives, Harvard University
Creator: Peabody Museum-National Geographic Early Man Expedition at Hell Gap, Wyoming
Title: Hell Gap Expedition Records 1961-68
Quantity: 1 collection (10 boxes; (5 linear feet); 1 oversize box)
Language of materials: English
Sarah R. Demb, March 1998
Access: Unrestricted (except for some personnel records).
Copying: Unrestricted (except for above).
Related PM Archival Collections: Awatovi Expedition Records 995-11: Non-Awatovi Records
- UP Site, Wyoming 1961-62, box 25.
Related PM Artifact Collections: Hell Gap Archaeological Collections 61-41-10; 62-32-10;
63-38-10; 64-41-10; 65-29-10; 66-34-10.
The Peabody Museum-National Geographic Early Man Expedition at Hell Gap, Wyoming was a six-year (seasonal) archaeological study of the prehistory of the high plains
of eastern Wyoming. The principal investigators on the expedition were Henry T. Irwin of the Peabody Museum, his sister, archaeologist Cynthia Irwin-Williams,and George A. Agogino of the Eastern New Mexico University. Hell Gap had continuous human occupation for 11,000 years and was an excellent site example
of tool development.
The main objective of the expedition was the systematic removal of enough material
from the various cultural complexes represented at the site (Folsom and Clovis, Midland, Agate Basin, Hell Gap,Cody, and the Frederick) to identify their archaeological content. The main thrust of the work was to reconstruct
a lifeway on the Great Plains that existed between 9000 B.C.and 5000 B.C.The study included not only archaeological excavations, but climatic interpretations based on geology and geomorphology by C. Vance Haynes,University of Arizona, assisted by Dr. John M. Saul, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Many students also assisted on the site.
Irwin, Henry T., Cynthia Irwin-Williams and George A. Agogino.1968. "Archaeological investigations at the Hell Gap site near Guernsey, Wyoming."
National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1963 Projects. Washington: National Geographic Society. pp. 151-156.
Irwin, Henry T. 1969. "Archaeological investigations at Hell Gap site, Guernsey, Wyoming." National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1964 Projects. Washington: National Geographic Society. pp. 113-116.
The expedition records contain evidence of the many activities that were carried out
on site. Series include field notes, site cards, clippings, correspondence,personnel records, manuscripts and writings,photographs,reports and proposals,and financial records.
Fieldnotesare recorded in site notebooks by Irwin. As well, the collection includes copies of the site cardsgenerated by Irwin. Some personal material is included: clippings of favorite poems and some of Irwin's correspondence with friends and family members. Other correspondence details the expedition logistics and progress in letters to and from the Peabody Museum. A good deal of the personnel records document the process by which student workers were hired each summer. Manuscripts and writings contain drafts of several articles written by Irwinand Irwin-Williams. Photographic material is comprised mainly of a "photo journal" compiled by Cynthia Irwin-Williams which depicts both the archaeologists' living conditions and the excavations themselves.
In more formal efforts, expedition reports and proposals drafts reveal the work that went into documenting the expedition for the granting agencies,
and copious financial records show the level of accountability necessary to recoup expenses.
- Series: Field Notes, n.d.
- Site notebooks, n.d .
- Vol. 1 Site I-IE: Maps, Rows L-N
- Vol. 2 Site I-IE: Maps, Row 0
- Vol. 3 Site I-IE: Maps, Row P
- Vol. 4 Site I-IE: Maps, Row Q
- Vol. 5 Site I-IE: Maps, Row R
- Vol. 6 Site I-IE: Maps, Row S
- Vol. 7 Site I-IE: Maps, Row T
- Vol. 8 Site I-IE: Maps, Row U
- Vol. 9 Site I-IE: Maps, Row V
- Vol. 10 Site I-IE: Maps, Rows W-AA
- Vol. 11 Site I: Field notes, profiles, miscellaneous, Site IE field notes
- Vol. 12 Site II: Maps, 3S-27S
- Vol. 13 Site II: Maps, 30S-45S
- Vol. 14 Site II: Maps, 48S-57S & wall fall excavations, 36S-45S, OW
- Vol. 15 Site II: Maps, 60S-81S
- Vol. 16 Site II: Maps, 84S-105S
- Vol. 17 Site II: Maps, 108S-132S
- Vol. 18 Site II: Maps, test trenches, 1961 excavations and miscellaneous profiles
- Vol. 19 Site III N: Maps, all squares
- Vol. 20 Site III N: Profiles, survey & locator maps, miscellaneous
- Vol. 21 Site III S: Maps, E24-25
- Vol. 22 Site III S: Index to maps, miscellaneous, maps: W18, 16, E32-35, test trench
- Index to artifacts by field number
- Site Cards n.d.
- Artifact cards to sites HG1, E
- Artifact cards to sites IIIN, IIIS, II, miscellaneous
- Series: Clippings, 1958, n.d.
- Series: Correspondence, 1961-68, n.d.
- Irwin, Henry T. 1961-63, n.d.
[contains personal materials]
- National Geographic 1964-67
- Miscellaneous August 1963-July 1968
- Series: Personnel Records, 1962-66, n.d.
- Personnel lists and budget 1962
- Irwin personnel correspondence 1963
[letters of reference closed]
- Staff applications 1963-66, n.d. [lists]
- Westover, Floyd Social Security 1966
- Series: Manuscripts & Writings, 1957-64, n.d.
- "The Archaeology of the Agate Bluff Area, Colorado" Irwin & Irwin-Williams 1957
- "Morphological Criteria in the Identification of the Pollen of Maize, Teosinte. .
." Irwin & Barghoorn drafts
- "Possible Eastern Connections for San Jose-Pinto Basin," n.d.
- Underhill, Ruth Nevada cave site list with "News of the Dead Sea Scrolls Come to Heaven,"
- Series: Photographs, 1962-64, n.d.
- Photo Journal Cynthia Irwin-Williams 1962-64
- Photos and Ephemera, n.d.
- Photos and Ephemera, slides and postcards of Cueva de Altamira (4) and (5)
- Series: Reports and Proposals, 1963-66
- Letter to National Geographic Society February 26, 1963
- Report of the 1963 Investigations at the Hell Gap Site near Guernsey, Wyoming
- A Proposal to the National Geographic Society for the Continuation and Completion of the Hell Gap Archaeological Project [1964-66]
- Preliminary Report to the National Geographic Society on the 1964 Field Operations at the Hell Gap Site, Guernsey, Wyoming
- Letter to National Geographic Society January 8, 1964
- Resume of Cultural Complexes at the Hell Gap Site December 1964, n.d. (2)
- Proposal to the National Geographic Society for the Continuation of the Hell Gap Archaeological
Project  (2)
- Report of the 1965 Field Operations at the Hell Gap Site Guernsey, Wyoming (2)
- The Hell Gap Site, Wyoming 1965
- Proposal to the National Geographic Society for the Completion of the Hell Gap Archaeological Project 
- Martin S. Fleischer letter to Henry Irwin re: summer 1966 work November 9, 1966
- Series: Financial Records, 1961-67
- Ferguson account/special receipts 1961
- Rawlins article receipts summer 1962
- Miscellaneous receipts June 1962
- Receipts August 1965
- Checks and receipts 1961-67
- Account books 1963-66 9 items
- Series: Oversize Financial Records, 1965-66
- Cash Ledger 1966 field season
- Expenditures notepad Hell Gap 1965
- Loose sheets
[originals and copies]
- 1966 Field Season Expenditures 39 Sheets
- Expenditures notepad field season 1966
- Expenditures ring book 1966 field season
- Agogino, George Allen
- Excavations (Archaeology)--Wyoming
- Haynes, Vance
- Hell Gap Expedition
- Irwin, Henry T
- Irwin-Williams, Cynthia
- National Geographic Society
- Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
- Saul, John M