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H MS c328

Gifford, Sanford. Papers, 1895-2013 (inclusive), 1950-2000 (bulk): Finding Aid.

Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)

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Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)

© President and Fellows of Harvard College


The Sanford Gifford papers were processed as a part of the Center's Access to Activism project, with funding from a Hidden Collections grant from the Harvard University Library.

Descriptive Summary

Call No.: H MS c328
Repository: Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)
Creator: Gifford, Sanford.
Title: Sanford Gifford papers
Date(s): 1895-2013 (inclusive),
Date(s): 1950-2000 (bulk).
Quantity: 57.66 cubic feet (56 records center cartons, 1 letter size document box, 1 legal size document box, 1 half letter size document box, 2 tall legal size document boxes, 3 flat oversize boxes)
Quantity: 0.04 gigabytes* (4 3.5 inch floppy disks)
Language of materials: Papers are predominantly in English. Some papers are in Danish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Swedish, and Turkish.
Abstract: The Sanford Gifford papers, 1895-2013 (inclusive), 1950-2000 (bulk), are the product of Gifford's professional, research, teaching, publishing, and political activism activities throughout the course of his career. The papers are arranged in seven series: I. Research, 1921-2010, undated; II. Professional Appointments, 1918-2008, undated; III. Professional Activities and Activism, 1939-2011, undated; IV. History of Psychoanalysis Research, Activities, and Writings, 1895-2011, undated; V. Subject Files, 1924-2011, undated; VI. Writings and Publications, 1937-2011, undated; and VII. Personal Files, 1934-2013, undated.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

The Sanford Gifford papers were gifted to the Center by Sanford Gifford in 2009 and 2011, and Paul and Ralph Gifford in 2014.
  • Accession number 2010-018. Sanford Gifford. 2009 September 24.
  • Accession number 2012-031. Sanford Gifford. 2011 September 04.
  • Accession number 2012-065. Sanford Gifford. 2011 November.
  • Accession number 2015-031. Paul and Ralph Gifford. 2014 February 07.
  • Accession number 2015-010. Paul and Ralph Gifford. 2014 August 18.
  • Processing Information:

    Processed by Amber LaFountain, with the processing assistance of Elizabeth Coup, 2015 June.
    Processing staff in the Center for the History of Medicine analyzed, arranged, and described the papers, and created a finding aid to improve access. Items were rehoused and, where necessary, photocopied to acid-free paper. Folder titles were transcribed from the originals when available; titles supplied by the processing staff appear in brackets only on the physical folders. Processing staff discarded duplicate records and records that did not meet the collection policy of the Center for the History of Medicine. All electronic media (as found in Series V and VI) were imaged using Access Data's FTK and a Forensic Recovery of Evidence Device. Records were then transferred to secure storage. Files that could be opened were sampled for content, however, researchers should be aware that not every file in the collection could be opened and assessed. Files for which specific software was needed, but not available to staff at the time of processing, were not reviewed. Regardless of copy status, all original media have been retained.

    Conditions Governing Access:

    Access requires advance notice. Access to Harvard University records is restricted for 50 years from the date of creation. These restrictions are noted where they appear in Series II and V. Access to personal, patient, and student information is restricted for 80 years from the date of creation. These restrictions appear in Series I-VII. Researchers may apply for access to restricted records. Consult Public Services for further information.
    Access to electronic records in this collection (as found in Series V and VI) is also subject to the above restrictions. Additionally, access is premised on the availability of a computer station, requisite software, and/or the ability of Public Services staff to review and/or print out records of interest in advance of an on-site visit.
    The Papers are stored offsite. Researchers are advised to contact Public Services for more information concerning retrieval of material.
    Please note: audio-visual recordings are restricted to access until such a time as they can be converted to digital media. Once converted, recordings will be restricted based on the recording's title, or as per the restrictions for the folder from which the recording was removed.

    Conditions Governing Use:

    The Harvard Medical Library does not hold copyright on all the materials in the collection. Requests for permission to publish material from the collection should be directed to Public Services. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from Public Services are responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations that hold copyright.

    Preferred Citation:

    Sanford Gifford Papers, 1895-2013 (inclusive), 1950-2000 (bulk). H MS c328. Harvard Medical Library, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston, Mass.

    Related Collections in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Center for the History of Medicine

    Collections at the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute Archives

    Biographical Notes

    Sanford Gifford (1918-2013), A.B. Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1938, M.D. Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, 1942, was Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, Senior Associate in Medicine (Psychiatry) at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, Instructor at the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, Massachusetts, and Staff Psychiatrist at the Veteran's Administration Hospital, West Roxbury, Massachusetts. Gifford's research focused on psychiatry of twins, sleep deprivation, stress, ACTH, cortisone, and the correlation between personality and biological markers.
    Sanford Gifford was born in Omaha, Nebraska, on June 27, 1918, to Alice C. Gifford (born 1892) and Sanford R. Gifford (1892-1944). He grew up in Chicago, Illinois, and later attended Harvard College, where he received his A.B. in 1938. He then moved back to Chicago, he attended Northwestern University School of Medicine. After receiving his M.D. in 1942, he was appointed Medical Intern at the University of California, San Francisco, and Acting Assistant Resident in Psychiatry at the university's Langley Porter Clinic (1942-1943. He enlisted in the Army Medical Corps during World War II, and was appointed Captain, Neuropsychiatry, from 1943 through 1946. He completed two more psychiatric residencies, with the United States Veterans Administration at Boston State Hospital, Massachusetts (1946-1947) and the Veteran's Administration Mental Hygiene Clinic, Boston, Massachusetts (1947-1948), before he was appointed Assistant in Medicine (Psychiatry) (1948-1950) and Junior Associate in Medicine (Psychiatry) (1950-1951) at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. He remained there throughout the rest of his career. In 1951, he was appointed Instructor in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, where he also remained for the rest of his career. His subsequent appointments at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (later Brigham and Women's Hospital) include: Associate in Medicine (Psychiatry) (1951-1958); and Senior Associate in Medicine (Psychiatry) (1980-2013). His subsequent appointments at Harvard Medical School include: Associate in Psychiatry (1953-1959); Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry (1959-1970); and Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry (1970-2013). During this period, Gifford also served as: Consultant in Psychiatry at the Robert Breck Brigham Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (1950-1980); Instructor in the Faculty of the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute (1958-2013); Visiting Psychiatrist at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston (1959-1966); and Staff Psychiatrist at the Veteran's Administration Hospital (1980-2013).
    Gifford's research focused on various areas of psychiatry, including psychoanalysis, stress, sleep deprivation, psychiatry of twins, ACTH and cortisone, and psychophysiology. Collaborating with Benjamin J. Murawski, Henry Morgenthau Fox (1907-1987), Arthur Valenstein (1914-2012), and others, he conducted studies on: stress, sensory and sleep deprivation; individual differentiation in identical and fraternal twins; the psychological effects of ACTH and cortisone treatments; and the correlation between personality and biological markers; as well as studies on aging, anorexia-nervosa, smoking, post-traumatic stress disorder, group psychotherapy, and rheumatoid arthritis. Gifford was also an avid scholar of the history of psychoanalysis, conducting numerous oral histories with German émigré psychoanalysts and pioneers of the early psychoanalytic movements in the United States and Europe. His professional affiliations include: the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, where he was Librarian and Director of Archives; the American Psychoanalytic Association, in which he served as Chair of the Committee on History and Archives; the International Psycho-Analytic Association; the American Psychiatric Association; and the American Psychosomatic Society. Gifford was also politically active, advocating against the Vietnam War, the draft, and the threat of nuclear war, and remained active throughout his life. He served as a member of Physicians for Social Responsibility, Medical Aid for Indochina, the Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, and various other activist organizations. He published over 75 scientific papers, in addition to two books: The Emmanuel Movement: The Origins of Group Treatment and the Assault on Lay Psychiatry, 1904-1929 (1997); and Edward Bibring Photographs the Psychoanalysts of his Time, 1932-1938 (2005), edited with Daniel Jacobs and Vivien Goldman.
    Sanford Gifford married Ingrid Barany (1918-2003), and they had two sons, Ralph and Paul. Gifford died on December 18, 2013, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    Series and Subseries in the Collection

    Scope and Content

    The Sanford Gifford papers, 1895-2013 (inclusive), 1950-2000 (bulk), are the product of Gifford's professional, research, teaching, publishing, and political activism activities throughout the course of his career. The papers are arranged in seven series: I. Research, 1921-2010, undated; II. Professional Appointments, 1918-2008, undated; III. Professional Activities and Activism, 1939-2011, undated; IV. History of Psychoanalysis Research, Activities, and Writings, 1895-2011, undated; V. Subject Files, 1924-2011, undated; VI. Writings and Publications, 1937-2011, undated; and VII. Personal Files, 1934-2013, undated.
    Research records (Series I) constitute the bulk of the collection, and include: research grant applications; writings and publications; subject interview transcripts; post-interview research team discussion transcripts; audio and audiovisual recordings of interviews and discussions; subject medical records and case notes; and raw, analyzed, and summarized research data, including charts, graphs, and case summaries. Research subjects include: ACTH and cortisone therapy; stress and sleep deprivation; individual differentiation in twins; psychophysiology in both twins and non-twins; and other topics in psychiatry and psychoanalysis. Professional Appointments records (Series II) contain: Harvard Medical School committee records and teaching records for courses related to growth and development, physical diagnosis, and other topics in psychiatry; Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital patient and intern records; Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute library administration and teaching records for courses related to psychoanalytic theory and the history of psychoanalysis; and administrative and patient records for Gifford's various other professional appointments. Professional activities and activism records (Series III) consist of: Gifford's political and antiwar editorials, correspondence, and collected publications; lectures, conference programs, and related correspondence for meetings and conferences related to psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and antiwar activism; and administrative records, conference records, writings, and collected publications related to Gifford's service in various professional and activist organizations. Organizations include: the American Psychoanalytic Association and its Committee on History and Archives; Physicians for Social Responsibility and its Subcommittee on Chemical and Biological Warfare; and Medical Aid for Indochina; among other organizations related to psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and antiwar movements. History of Psychoanalysis records (Series IV) include: lectures and writings for various conferences and related publications concerning the psychoanalytic movements in Europe and the United States; transcripts of oral history interviews conducted by Gifford with German émigré psychoanalysts and their family members; collected publications concerning the history of psychoanalysis; and related correspondence. Subject files (Series V) contains: personal and professional correspondence with friends, students, patients, and colleagues; manuscript drafts and reprints for various scientific papers and antiwar editorials; collected publications related to various antiwar movements and topics in psychiatry; and curricula vitae, biographies, and collected publications of Gifford's colleagues and peers. The papers also contain: manuscripts, reprints, and related publication correspondence for Gifford's writings and publications concerning twins, the history of psychoanalysis, antiwar activism, and other topics in psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and political activism (Series VI); and Gifford's personal and professional correspondence, personal diaries, medical licenses, and curricula vitae (Series VII).
    The papers are predominantly in English. Some papers are in Danish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Swedish, and Turkish.

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