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H MS c153

Finland, Maxwell. Papers, 1916-2003: A Finding Aid.

Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)


Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)

© President and Fellows of Harvard College

The Maxwell Finland Papers were processed with support from Wyeth Vaccines at the request of Jerome O. Klein.

Descriptive Summary

Call No.: H MS c153
Repository: Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)
Creator: Finland, Maxwell.
Title: Maxwell Finland Papers, 1916-2003.
Date(s): 1916-2003.
Quantity: 38.5 cubic feet (35 record cartons, three document boxes, two half-document boxes, one legal document box, and three oversized flat boxes)
Language of materials: English
Abstract: The Maxwell Finland Papers, 1916-2003, document Finland's career as a specialist in infectious diseases atBoston City Hospital and as George Richards Minot Professor of Medicine atHarvard Medical School.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

The Maxwell Finland Papers were donated to the Harvard Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine in 1998/1999.

Processing Information:

Processed by: Alyson Reichgott, with advice and comments by Dr. Jerome O. Klein, June 2004
Processing note: This collection includes papers formerly identified as GA 27. Approximately 2.5 cubic feet of materials were incorporated into the larger collection from GA 27, Maxwell Finland. Approximately twenty-seven cubic feet of duplicate, unmarked photocopies, reprints, form correspondence, administrative memoranda, drafts, published volumes, pamphlets, and brochures were removed and discarded, along with unduplicated material of a personal or financial nature, either to MF or others, including retirement or insurance information, receipts, invoices, travel vouchers, tax returns, pay stubs or salary information, copies of checks, and professional article reviews. Sixty-two cubic feet of material, acquired in 1999, were organized into eleven series of this collection. Although some acidic paper has been photocopied and removed, generally good paper condition and the prohibitive amount contained in the collection prevented blanket photocopying. This may be addressed more systematically as resources and time warrant.

Conditions Governing Access:

Access requires advance notice.There are restrictions on access to portions of this collection. Personnel and patient information is restricted for 80 years from the date of creation. These restrictions are noted where they appear in Series I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and IX. Access to Harvard University records are restricted for 50 years from the date of creation. These restrictions are noted where they appear in Series III. Researchers may apply for access to restricted records. Consult the ReferenceLibrarian for further information.

Conditions Governing Use:

The Harvard Medical Library does not hold copyright on all the materials in the collection. Requests for permission to publish material from the collection should be directed to the Public Services Librarian. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from the Public Services Librarian are responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations that hold copyright. Reference Services and Access Information.

Preferred Citation:

Maxwell Finland papers, 1916-2003. H MS c153. Harvard MedicalLibrary, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston, Mass.

Related Materials

Related collections in the Center for the History of Medicine include Maxwell Finland's faculty publications (1.Mh.1943.F) and the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory at Boston City Hospital's collected publications (1.Mhl.1922.1). Additional records include:
For more information on related materials, consult the Public Services Librarian.


Maxwell Finland (MF), Director of the Second and Fourth Medical Services and the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory (TML) at Boston City Hospital (BCH), and George Richards Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School (HMS), was an infectious diseases specialist, academic physician, and ethicist who studied the safety and effectiveness of antibiotics. He was born 15 March 1902 near Kiev, Russia, to Frank and Rebecca (Povza) Finland. His family emigrated to the West End of Boston when he was four years old, and he graduated from the Boston English High School in 1918. He graduated from Harvard College, cum laude, in 1922, after earning his way through school giving Hebrew lessons. MF received the MD from HMS in 1926.
Following graduation from HMS, MF served briefly as an assistant resident physician at the Boston Sanitorium, before joining the staff at BCH in 1927 as a house officer with the Second Medical Service. He became Physician-in Chief of the Fourth Medical Service in 1939, and Director of the Second and Fourth Medical Services in 1963. When MF began treating patients at BCH in the late 1920s, nearly half of patient deaths were caused by pneumonia. Finland began treating his patients with pneumonia anti-sera; a few years later he was evaluating the use of sulfanilomides, and shortly after began many years of work on penicillin and subsequent generations of antibiotics. Over the course of his career, MF supervised the treatment of over 20,000 patients with pneumonia and other infections.
TML at BCH accommodated Finland's research projects for forty years. He was first appointed Assistant Resident in 1929, and was eventually promoted to Director in 1963. While he officially retired from both BCH and TML in 1968, he maintained an office in BCH's Channing Laboratory, where he continued to conduct research and write professional articles until 1983. The Maxwell Finland Laboratory for Infectious Diseases at BCH was dedicated in 1979.
MF's affiliation with HMS spanned his entire career. He was first appointed Charles Follen Folsom Teaching Fellow in Hygiene and Assistant in Medicine at HMS in 1928, and rose steadily through the academic ranks to become George Richards Minot Professor of Medicine in 1963. He became George Richards Minot Professor Emeritus in 1968, and that same year, the Maxwell Finland Professorship in Clinical Pharmacology was named in his honor. He was President of the Harvard Medical Alumni Association in 1971-1972, and is credited with fundraising more than eight million dollars to endow professorships and support HMS activities and research.
In addition, MF became a Senior Medical Investigator for the Veterans Administration in 1972. He served as an expert adviser to many government agencies at local, state, and national levels, highlighting the dangers of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of disease.
Finland was one of the leading infectious disease researchers in the world. He was a principal investigator and acknowledged authority during the most prolific period in the history of infectious disease research. A meticulous investigator, drug companies and government agencies sought MF's approval for new antibiotics and their clinical application. He campaigned tirelessly against both unscientific marketing of new antibiotics by drug companies, and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in prevention and treatment of disease. MF's scientific contributions included original work on the serum treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia; treatment of respiratory injuries caused by noxious gases and/or bacteria; recognition of the importance of cold agglutinins to the clinical diagnosis of atypical pneumonia; clinical evaluations of major antibiotics such as sulfadiazine, erythromycin, tetracycline, and the myriad of semisynthetic penicillins; and exhaustive studies on how bacteria evolve resistance to antibiotics.
Finland's presence was constantly sought at conferences and laboratories in the US and abroad. At TML, he recruited, trained, and nurtured the careers of hundreds of young scientists. Many of these fellows came from overseas, and many became prominent and prolific scientists in the fields of infectious disease, preventive medicine, pediatrics, and microbiology.
Finland was dedicated to publishing laboratory findings as thoroughly and efficiently as possible. He was author or co-author of over 800 scientific papers for professional publication, and edited works concerning antibiotics, bacterial infections, communicable diseases, and internal medicine. Finland's articles followed a precise structure so that fellows and coworkers could follow consistent standards. Charts MF drew to illustrate antibiotic/ drug interaction were so meticulous and unique as to be given their own name- "Finlandograms." Article topics largely resulted from his original laboratory work and therapeutic trials, and included many aspects of bacteriology, immunology, pharmacology, and virology. In addition, he co-edited the three-volume Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital with William B. Castle, published in 1982-1983. He was a member of the editorial boards of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Applied Microbiology, Chest, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Journal of the American Medical Association, and The New England Journal of Medicine.
MF maintained memberships in many professional societies, including the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association of Immunologists, and American College of Physicians. He was Vice-President of the American Society for Clinical Investigation (1945), Vice-President of the American Epidemiological Society (1962), and first president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (1962).
Finland received many awards and honors during his long career, including the Bristol Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (1966), the John Phillips Memorial Award of the American College of Physicians (1970), and the George M. Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians (1978). Harvard University awarded MF a Doctor of Science (honoris causa) in 1982. The Maxwell Finland Lectureship Fund, established at his retirement, supported an annual lecture by a distinguished physician in the general fields of infectious diseases, immunology, and preventive medicine.
MF died at Faulkner Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts on 25 October 1987, at age 85. A memorial service was held at Levine Chapels in Brookline, Massachusetts on 27 October 1987.

Series and Subseries Arrangement

Scope and Content Note

The Maxwell Finland Papers, 1916-2003, record Finland's work as an epidemiologist and academic physician at Harvard Medical School and Boston City Hospital. Most of the records date from 1950 to 1968, corresponding roughly to Finland's most senior years at Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, and are from MF's research and publications, particularly concerning original laboratory work and therapeutic trials. Other records include those from fundraising efforts on behalf of Harvard Medical School, attendance and participation in conferences, meetings, and symposia in the US and abroad, and site visits conducted for the Veterans' Administration.
The records contain information on the evolution and significant changes that occurred in the treatment of infectious disease during MF's career. Also included are articles, certificates, clippings, correspondence, memoranda, notes, patient records, plaques, reports, film reels, videotapes, and photographs from Finland's research concerning a range of subjects related to infectious diseases, but most often clinical evaluations of new antibiotics. Other topics covered in the records include MF's work to secure steady funding for medical research in the post-war era; the growth of his Harvard Medical School research projects, as well as those at the Thorndike Medical Laboratory and Boston City Hospital; and changes that accompanied Harvard's departure from Boston City Hospital in 1973.
Also included is correspondence and records from working with colleagues George Richards Minot, William Bosworth Castle, Charles Sprecher Davidson, and Edward Harold Kass; correspondence with individual's that MF mentored and records from his efforts to both promote their careers and continue personal associations.
Patient names and social security numbers have been eliminated from correspondence, reports, and notes accompanying unrestricted material. Photographs are listed where they belong in the collection. Restricted materials are listed where they appear in Series I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX and XI.

Container List

Additional Index Terms

Antibiotics, Combined
Anti-Bacterial Agents--therapeutic use
Communicable Diseases
Cross Infections
Drug Evaluation
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Gram-negative bacterial infections
Harvard Medical School--Study and teaching
Infectious disease research
Infectious diseases and antimicrobial agents
Nosocomial infections
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal
Staphylococcal infections
Finland, Maxwell
Boston City Hospital. Harvard Medical Unit
Channing Laboratory
Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lederle Laboratories
Thorndike Memorial Laboratory
United States. Veterans Administration
Castle, William B. (William Bosworth), 1897-
Davidson, Charles S. (Charles Sprecher), 1910-
Kass, Edward H. (Edward Harold), 1917-
Minot, George Richards, 1885-1950.
Sabin, Albert B. (Albert Bruce), 1906-