H MS c70
Morgan, Christiana. Papers, 1925-1974: A Finding Aid.
Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)
Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)
© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Call No.: H MS c70
Repository: Center for the History of Medicine (Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)
Creator: Morgan, Christiana.
Title: Christiana Morgan Papers, 1925-1974.
Quantity: 3.4 cubic feet (3 record cartons, 1 legal document box)
Language of materials: English
Abstract: The Christiana Morgan Papers, 1925-1974, document the life of Christiana Drummond
Morgan, a lay analyst at the Harvard Psychological Unit, who co-authored the Thematic
Apperception Test with Henry Murray. Diaries, writings, and correspondence describe
her work and relationship with Murray.
The Christiana Morgan Papers were acquired by the Harvard Medical Library in the Francis
A. Countway Library of Medicine.
Processed by Anne Woodrum, March 2002
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Christiana Morgan papers, 1925-1974. H MS c70. Harvard Medical Library, Francis A.
Countway Library of Medicine, Boston, Mass.
Christiana Drummond Morgan (CDM), a lay psychoanalyst at the Harvard Psychological
Unit, was born in Boston, Massachusetts on 6 October 1897, the daughter of Isabella
Coolidge and William Thomas Councilman, a professor of pathology at the Harvard Medical
School. She attended the Winsor School in Boston from 1908 to 1914, and then attended
Farmington, a finishing school for girls, for one year. In the spring of 1917 she
met William Morgan (WM), a Harvard University student and one of the first of the
class of 1918 to enlist in the US armed forces. Before WM left for duty in September
of 1917, the two were engaged to be married.
While WM served in the war, CDM enrolled in a nurse's aid course in New York City.
After finishing the course, CDM went home to care for her sick father and began volunteering
at a hospital in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. During the influenza epidemic of 1918,
the Red Cross drafted CDM for emergency duty. CDM was assigned to hospitals in Methuen,
Massachusetts and worked for Colonel Brooks, the Head of the Medical Department of
the Massachusetts State Guard.
In April 1919, WM returned from the war. On 9 May 1919 CDM and WM were married and
settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts. A son, Peter Councilman Morgan, was born in 1920.
In 1924, WM enrolled at Cambridge University to pursue a graduate degree in biochemistry
and CDM accompanied him to England. While there she began a forty-year romantic relationship
with future psychoanalyst Henry Murray (HAM). CDM's relationship with HAM has been
written about extensively in two books: Translate this Darkness by Claire Douglas and Love's Story Told: A Life of Henry A. Murray by Forrest G. Robinson.
In June 1926 CDM went to Zurich to be analyzed by Carl Jung and WM followed two months
later. From June until October of 1926 CDM was a patient of Carl Jung. By the mid
1920s Carl Jung's theories and techniques had become popular among artists and intellectuals
who often traveled to Zurich to consult or train with him. During this time Jung used
active imagination or trancing as a therapy tool. CDM responded strongly to this technique
and her visions and drawings inspired Jung who later used her material for the Vision
Seminars in Zurich during the 1930s.
In November of 1926 CDM returned to Boston and began working at the Harvard Psychological
Unit. The clinic was established by Dr. Morton Prince, who endowed the clinic and
served as its first director. From the beginning, the clinic lacked funds so Prince
employed mainly part-time or self-supporting therapists. Prince also staffed the clinic
with lay analysts with limited psychiatric training and he accepted both CDM and HAM
because of their informal training with Jung. In addition to her work as a lay analyst,
CDM was also a research associate at the clinic. When Morton Prince died in the summer
of 1929, HAM took over as Head of the clinic.
After her husband died of tuberculosis in 1934, CDM continued working at the clinic
and maintained a professional, personal and spiritual relationship with HAM. In 1937
CDM and HAM decided to add a tower to CDM's single room summer house in Newburyport,
Massachusetts she had purchased in 1927. CDM and HAM designed the tower, using Jung's
Tower in Bolligen as inspiration. Along with a three story tower, CDM and HAM added
a kitchen, enclosed porch and woodshed and started calling the property "Tower on
the Marsh." CDM and HAM used the tower as a sanctuary or retreat and it became a frequent
topic in CDM's writings.
In the 1930s CDM and HAM co-authored the Thematic Apperception Test, one of the most widely used tools in clinical psychology. CDM's name, however, was
later removed from the test. In 1945 they published a small monograph on personality
called A Clinical Study of Sentiments.
CDM maintained a presence at the Harvard Psychological Unit until the 1960s. By the
1960s, however, she had few patients and her lack of academic qualifications was no
longer acceptable. Her health was deteriorating as she battled alcoholism and her
relationship with HAM became increasingly tumultuous as well. CDM's life tragically
ended in 1967 when she committed suicide by drowning.
- Series I. Diaries and Notebooks, 1925-1966
- Series II. Writings by Christiana Morgan and Henry A. Murray, 1927-1954
- Series III. Vision Seminars, 1926-1974
- ___ Subseries A. Interpretation of Dreams, 1930
- ___ Subseries B. Writings about Vision Seminars, 1930s, 1967-1974
- ___ Subseries C. Trance Writings, 1926-1928
- Series IV. Untitled Book, undated
- Series V. Other Correspondence, Writings, and Notes, 1938-1968
The Christiana Morgan Papers, 1925-1974, contain writings, diaries, and correspondence
that document the life and work of a lay psychoanalyst and her relationship with HAM.
Significant items include the CDM's diaries and notebooks created while she was a
patient of Carl Jung in the1920s. The diaries are a record of analytic methods during
this period and illustrate CDM's analytic skills. Correspondence, book reviews, writings
about trances, Jung's Vision Seminars and chapters of an uncompleted and untitled
book further describe CDM's professional and personal life.
Original order was retained when possible to create five series. Oversize folders
listed in Series IV are housed in box 4.
- Series: I. Diaries and Notebooks, 1925-1966
Scope and Contents: Series I includes diaries with illustrations of the CDM's and HAM's symbols and rituals.
The diaries contain sketches, quotations and writings. In the analysis and vision
diaries, CDM describes her visions and Jung's analysis from their sessions beginning
in summer of 1926 until November of the next year. In the diaries dated "March 27
1952 – November 16, 1956" and "April 4, 1965 - September 23, 1966", CDM describes
her house in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Arranged chronologically.
- Box 1, Folder 1, 1925-1930
- Box 1, Folder 2, Gods and Their Representations in the House,sketches in pencil, 1927-1940
- Box 1, Folder 3, Analysis, 8 June 1926-8 July 1926
Date: 8 June 1926-8 July 1926
- Box 1, Folder 4, Dreams Analysis, 8 June 1926 - 26 October 1926
Date: 8 June 1926 - 26 October 1926
- Box 1, Folder 5, Dreams, July 1926 - April 1927
Date: July 1926 - April 1927
- Box 1, Folder 6, Visions, 16 July 1926-15 March 1927
Date: 16 July 1926-15 March 1927
- Box 1, Folder 7, Visions, 17 November 1926-1 May 1927
Date: 17 November 1926-1 May 1927
- Box 1, Folder 8, Objects in the Tower: Their Symbolic Meaning, 1927-1940
- Box 1, Folder 9, The Gods and Their Representaion in Sted, 1927-1959
- Box 1, Folder 10, Trances and Dreams, 7 June 1927 - 10 November 1932
Date: 7 June 1927 - 10 November 1932
- Box 1, Folder 11, Untitled Diary, 1927-1959
- Box 1, Folder 12
- Box 1, Folder 13
- Box 1, Folder 14, Five Year Diary, 27 March 1952-16 November 1956
Date: 27 March 1952-16 November 1956
- Box 1, Folder 15, Five Year Diary, 4 April 1965-23 September 1966
Date: 4 April 1965-23 September 1966
- Box 1, Folder 16Biography of a Trinity, undated
- Series: II. Writings by Christiana Morgan and Henry A. Murray, 1927-1954
Scope and Contents: Series II includes writings about CDM's relationship with HAM, her trances and her
visions. Most of the writings are on loose-leaf paper originally housed in black binders.
Throughout these writings CDM and HAM refer to themselves as Mansol and Wona, names
they gave each other in Germany in 1926. The Trance Pilgrimage Parts I-III chronicle their relationship from June to December 1927. Also included in CDM and HAM Writings are typescripts entitled Written by Mansol and The Way to the Sanctuary and CDM's diary excerpts. The diary excerpts are handwritten and contain comments
by HAM. After the title of each document the number of the black notebook in which
the writings were originally found is listed in parentheses.
- Box 1, Folder 17, Trance Pilgrimage Part I: Creation of the Trinity, written by CDM (1), 7 June-6 October 1927
Date: 7 June-6 October 1927
- Box 1, Folder 18, Trance Pilgrimage Part II: Seven Cities, written by CDM (1), 6-30 October 1927
Date: 6-30 October 1927
- Box 1, Folder 19, Trance Pilgrimage Part III: Creation of the Word, written by CDM (1), 30 October-8 December 1927
Date: 30 October-8 December 1927
- Box 1, Folder 20, Written by Mansol, (2), October 1939
Date: October 1939
- Box 1, Folder 21, The Way to the Sanctuary, written by Mansol (2), 1 February 1940; written by Mansol, notes by CDM (2), 30 August
1927; Wona's Diary, comments by Mansol (2), June 1944
Date: 1 February 1940;
Date: 30 August 1927;
Date: June 1944
- Box 1, Folder 22, Pilgrimage of Creation and Diary Entries (3), 1950-1954
- Box 1, Folder 23 Pilgrimage of Creation, letter from HAM, and diary excerpts, undated
- Series: IV. Untitled Book, undated
Scope and Contents: The Untitled Book consists chapters, a prologue and epilogue. In the prologue, CDM explains that the
purpose of the book was to give an account of the development of her relationship
with HAM and their symbol making. Throughout the book CDM refers to herself as Wona
and to HAM as Mansol. Most of the book focuses on her relationship with HAM, their
mythology and the creation of the tower on the property in Newburyport, Massachusetts.
In other parts of the book CDM writes about their religion, her trances and her sessions
with Jung, who she refers to as Old Man. Most of the chapters are typescript with notes in the margins, some of which appear
to be written by HAM. There are notes in an unidentified handwriting and there are
a number of proposed chapters under the heading Additional Writings. The chapters are listed numerically and additional writings alphabetically.
Oversize items listed in Series IV are housed in box 4.
- A. Chapters, undated
Scope and Contents: Subseries A contains manuscripts and chapter drafts of CDM and HAM's Untitled Book documenting their relationship, symbol making, and mythology. CDM's notes and typescripts
describe her sessions with Jung and the religion she shared with HAM. Arranged numerically
- Box 2, Folder 25Chapter Lists and Outlines
- Box 2, Folder 26Prologue: The Promise
- Box 2, Folder 271: The Voyage Home
- Box 2, Folder 282: The Finding of Sted
- Box 2, Folder 29, 3: The Building; includes letter from Michael Holden, 12 September 1961
Date: 12 September 1961
- Box 2, Folder 304: The Hola
- Box 2, Folder 316: Planting Lawn and Garden
- Box 2, Folder 328: Old Testament Shutters
- Box 2, Folder 339: Dialogue. Points for Our Religion
- Box 3, Folder 110: Pelinossa. Counterpoint Corso
- Box 3, Folder 211: The Guardian Pine
- Box 3, Folder 312: History of Synergy
- Box 3, Folder 413: The Backward Look
- Box 3, Folder 514: The Fathers, includes clippings and diary excerpts
- Box 3, Folder 615: The Building of the Tower
- Box 3, Folder 716: Arrival in Spring
- Box 3, Folder 817: Conversation with Buddha
- Box 3, Folder 918: Via Sacra
- Box 3, Folder 1019: Dialogue Points for Our Religion
- Box 3, Folder 1120: Alone
- Box 3, Folder 1221: Arrival in Winter
- Box 3, Folder 1322: The Road Up
- Box 3, Folder 1423: Manahata
Lay analysis (Psychoanalysis)
Thematic Apperception Test.
Jung, C.G. (Carl Gustav) 1875-1961.
Murray, Henry Alexander, 1893-
C.G. Jung-Institut (Zürich, Switzerland)
Harvard Psychological Unit.