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HOLLIS 6014152

Papers relating to Mexican government debts held by Louis Hargous and George Hammeken, 1840-1881

Harvard Law School Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University

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Harvard Law School

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Descriptive Summary

Location: Harvard Depository
Call No.: HOLLIS 6014152
Repository: Harvard Law School Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University
Creator: Hargous, Louis
Title: Papers relating to Mexican government debts held by Louis Hargous and George Hammeken
Date(s): 1840-1881
Quantity: 1 boxes (.3 linear feet)
Language of materials: English
Abstract: This collection includes government documents from the United States and Mexico and private agreements relating to debts held by Hargous and Hammeken, as well as printed court documents from attempts to collect those debts.

Immediate Source of Acquisition:

Contact the Curator of Modern Manuscripts for more information.

Processing Information:

Processed by Ana Enriquez, July 2011

Conditions Governing Access:

Access to these papers is governed by the rules and regulations of the Harvard Law School Library. This collection is open to the public, but is housed off-site at Harvard Depository and requires 2 business-day advance notice for retrieval. Consult the Historical and Special Collections staff for further information.

Conditions Governing Use:

The Harvard Law School Library holds copyright on some, but not all, of the material in our collections. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be directed to the Historical and Special Collections staff. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from the Harvard Law School Library are also responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations who hold copyright.

Related Materials

Historical/Biographical Information


Louis Hargous was born in Philadelphia in 1810. His wife was Susan J. Hargous. He went to Mexico at a young age, where he developed his business knowledge. In the 1840s, Hargous lived in Veracruz, Mexico. He served as United States Consul at Veracruz for 17 years, beginning no later than 1842. His firm, L.S. Hargous & Co., did business with the Mexican government. His partner, Emile Voss, had a one-third interest in the firm.
The Mexican-American War, in which Hargous fought for the U.S. and attained the rank of colonel, lasted from 1846 to 1848. Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, $3.25 million from the United States's purchase of land from Mexico was to be reserved for the payment of Mexican debts held by Americans. L.S. Hargous & Co. claimed some of that money.
George Hammeken was born in New York City in 1811. He lived in Texas for a time, and then in New Orleans from 1844 to 1850. In 1856, Hammeken entered an agreement with the Mexican government to build a short railroad from Mexico City to Tacubaya, tax-free for fifteen years. He was not able to sell enough shares in the company, so he took on significant debt. After a coup in 1858, the new conservative government controlled Mexico City. The ousted liberal government controlled the city and state of Veracruz. The Mexican Reform War between the conservatives and the ousted liberals lasted until 1861, during which time the new government prevented Hammeken from operating the railway and then began to tax it. Hammeken was ruined. American diplomats brought Hammeken's situation to the attention of Benito Juárez, whose liberal faction won the war.
After victory in 1861, Mexican president Benito Juárez suspended payment of foreign debts, and Mexico's three largest creditors, France, Spain, and the United Kingdom, invaded. Spain and the U.K. left in 1862, but the French army stayed until ousted with the help of the U.S. in 1866. In 1862, the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs, Manuel Doblado, assigned Hammeken $100,000 payable in installments upon Mexico's receipt of $11 million in nineteen installments from the United States under an April 1862 treaty. Hammeken accepted the promise of $100,000, though he considered his losses to be much greater. The U.S. Senate did not ratify the April 1862 treaty.
In May 1862, a doctor recommended that Hammeken take his wife to California for her health. Louis Hargous lent him the money for the journey, and Hammeken pledged to Hargous his claim under the Doblado drafts. Hargous lent him more money on his return in 1863 to help him reestablish a business. In 1868, the Mexican government tried to cancel the Doblado drafts, given that the U.S. treaty was not approved. Hammeken refused to return them. Hargous retired to New York City in 1868. Hammeken and Hargous addressed their claims to the American and Mexican Joint Commission under the Treaty of July 4, 1868 and the U.S. State Department between 1870 and 1881. Louis Hargous died in New York City on December 24, 1886.

Scope and Contents

The Papers span the years 1840 to 1881. The written material is a mixture of government and private documents. It chiefly concerns a Mexican government debt held by George Hammeken, part of which he transferred to Louis Hargous. That debt is the subject of the proceedings before the State Department and the American and Mexican Joint Commission under the Treaty of July 4, 1868 from which the collection contains printed material. The collection also contains material from Hargous's firm, L.S. Hargous & Co. of Vera Cruz, and the Tehuantepec Railway Company. The materials are written in English, Spanish, and French.

Container List

Additional Index Terms

Mexico -- History -- European intervention, 1861-1867.
Mexican War, 1846-1848.
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, 1848.
Tehuantepec, Isthmus of (Mexico).
Tehuantepec Railway Company.
Hargous, Louis Stanislas.
Hammeken, George Louis.
Hargous, P. A. (Peter A.).
Doblado, Manuel, 1818-1865

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