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Repository: Arnold Arboretum Archives of Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130.
Call No.: III EHW
Title: Papers of Ernest Henry Wilson, 1896-1952.
Creator: Wilson, Ernest Henry, 1876-1930.
Quantity: 20 Linear Feet (30 Boxes)
Abstract: The Ernest Henry Wilson Papers reflect his contribution to horticulture and botany as a plant collector who, through numerous expeditions to China, Korea, and Japan, introduced many new species into cultivation in arboreta, parks, and private gardens. The collection includes his extensive correspondence written between 1899 and 1930 to Arnold Arboretum staff, mainly Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927), the Arboretum's first director; copies of his letters to other Arboretum explorers and colleagues such as Joseph Charles Francis Rock (1884-1962), David Fairchild (1869-1954), Frank Nicholas Meyer (1875-1918) Alfred Rehder (1863-1949), and members of the Veitch Nurseries in England. Other material includes field and plant collection notes, diaries, account books, shipping lists, maps, and manuscripts of both published and unpublished works. There are Chinese and other travel documents, letters of recommendation, certificates and material relating to Wilson's life as a student and his early work as a gardener. There is an extensive collection of clippings from newspapers and copies of articles from botanical and horticultural journals. Material relating to the administration of Arnold Arboretum and his other activities at Harvard University are included, as well. Of special note is Wilson's photograph collection of approximately 7,700 images taken at the Arnold Arboretum, throughout New England, in Eastern Asia, and around the world.
Access to Finding Aid record in Hollis Classic or Hollis.
Current version of this finding aid is available at the Archives of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University.
The following article, a copy of which was originally contained in Series IV, folder 4 (Plantings), can be found in Arnoldia: Wyman, Donald. “Plants for Screening Junkyards, Gravel Pits and Dumps.” Arnoldia 25, no. 8 (November 19, 1965): 45-48.
The following plans can be found in Drawer 5, folder 13A of the Arnold Arboretum Library map collection: 75% Submission—Plant and Path Layout/Grading Plan, Topographic Plan, Arnold Arboretum Expansion, prepared for Brown and Rowe, Inc. by Judith Nitsch Engineering, Inc. September 23, 1998.
Additional Ernest Henry Wilson correspondence can be found by searching the Arnold Arboretum Correspondence Index.
"Ernest Henry Wilson wished to go down in memory as 'Chinese Wilson,' and so it has been. His reputation today is certainly that of one of the most successful individuals to introduce horticulturally valuable plants from China to western gardens. Over 1,000 different plants were gathered by Wilson and introduced in England and America as seeds, bulbs, cuttings, or plants; these have since become established in the horticultural trade and in private or botanical gardens."Introduction to "E.H. Wilson as a Botanist," by Richard A. Howard, Director, Arnold Arboretum Arnoldia, 40; 3, 4, 1980.E. H. Wilson was born at Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, England, on February 15, 1876, the eldest of Henry and Annie (Curtis) Wilson's seven children. On leaving school, Wilson apprenticed at the nurseries of Messrs. Hewitt of Solihull, Warwickshire. In 1892, at sixteen, he was employed at the Birmingham Botanical Gardens as a gardener and, on his own time in the evening, studied botany at the Birmingham Technical School. His next employment, which began in January 1897, was at the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew. In October of the following year, Wilson began studies at the Royal College of Science in South Kensington.When the nursery firm of Veitch and Sons asked William Turner Thiselton-Dyer (1843-1928), the director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (1885-1891), to recommend a suitable man to be sent to China to collect seeds and plants, it was the young E.H. Wilson he nominated. After six months of training under George Harrow at Veitch's Coombe Wood Nursery, Wilson left for China in 1899 and began a successful career in introducing Asiatic plants to the West. On his way to China, he visited at the Arnold Arboretum for five days, and initiated a life-long collaboration with the institution. In April 1902, Wilson returned to England and on June 8, 1902 married Ellen Ganderton of Edgbaston, Warwickshire. They had one daughter, Muriel Primrose, who would later marry the American botanist, George Slate, a plant breeder at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, New York. Wilson went on a second trip to China for Veitch that lasted from 1903 to 1906. For the remainder of 1906, he worked as an assistant at the Imperial Institute, London.His third and fourth China expeditions (1906-1911) were arranged by C.S. Sargent under the sponsorship of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. "A good set of photographs are really about as important as anything you can bring back with you," Sargent wrote as he prepared for his first Arboretum-sponsored expedition. Sargent insisted Wilson take on this journey and on all that would follow, a large format Sanderson whole-plate field camera capable of recording both great detail and broad perspectives without distortion. For three years, beginning in late 1906, Wilson explored western Hupeh and western Szechuan. He arrived in Boston in 1909 via Beijing, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Paris, and finally London, where he spent several months developing the glass-plate negatives and seeing his 720 images for the first time. Also in 1909, the family moved to Boston; Ernest and Ellen Wilson would eventually live in a house constructed for them on the grounds of the Arboretum, where they would make their home for the rest of their lives.The purpose of his second Arboretum expedition, which began in 1910, was to collect cones and conifer seeds in the central and southwestern parts of China. In September of that year, while traveling between Sungpan and Chentu, a landslide hit the expedition group, crushing Wilson's leg. After several months in a hospital at Chentu, Wilson returned to Boston in March 1911, much earlier than planned. Before the accident, however, he had managed to take 374 images and to collect and ship bulbs of Lilium regale, the Easter Lily, to Boston.In January 1914, accompanied by his wife and daughter, Wilson sailed for Japan, where he would focus his attention on cultivated plants, horticulture, conifers, Kurume azaleas, and Japanese cherries. By the time the Wilsons returned to Boston at the beginning of 1915, there were 619 new images to add to the photograph collection. Wilson next undertook a "systematic exploration" of the region in 1917 and travelled to the Bonin Islands, Japan, Formosa, and along the Yalu River into the far northern reaches of Korea, returning to Boston in 1919 with seeds, living plants, 30,000 herbarium specimens, and 700 photographs. His last expedition, a tour of the gardens of the world, took place from 1920 to 1922 and included, in alphabetical order: Australia, England, France, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore, South Africa, and Tasmania.In addition to being a plant explorer and a botanist, Wilson became a prolific author and a much sought-after lecturer. His articles appeared in the popular press as well as in the botanical literature, and he often illustrated his talks with hand-colored lantern slides adapted from the glass plate negatives created during his travels. In 1919, Wilson was appointed Assistant Director; after Sargent's death in 1927, Wilson became "Keeper" of the Arnold Arboretum. Three years later, his remarkable career was cut short when he and his wife were killed in an automobile accident on October 15, 1930 outside Worcester, Massachusetts. Ernest and Ellen Wilson are buried in the Mont-Royal Cemetery in Montreal, Canada.
Although there are a small number of personal family photographs in the collection, no family papers or family correspondence appear to exist. The first trip to China for Messrs. Veitch is the least documented expedition in the collection. No diary from this trip has been found, although evidence indicates that a diary was kept. No letters from Wilson to the Veitch firm have been located from the expeditions for Messrs. Veitch. However, the Veitch's letters to Wilson, as well as their instructions to him for both trips, are included.His papers also include some early work and education records, diaries, field and plant notes, account books, shipping lists, maps, Chinese and other travel documents, manuscripts, clippings, and several hundred letters to and from Wilson. Also included in his archives is an extensive and virtually complete collection of Wilson's photographs, lantern slides, and glass plate negatives. Some references to photography can be found in the notebooks, but no separate photography notebook exists.Also in the collection are contemporary articles and books about Wilson, records pertaining to exhibits of Wilson material, and correspondence relating to the Arboretum's archival holdings.Appendix 1 holds two earlier drafts of the finding aid for the Ernest Henry Wilson Papers, from 1984 and 1997. The 1984 document is the first finding aid created by the Archives of the Arnold Arboretum Library.Series and Subseries Arrangement
- Series W.I: Biographical Material.This series is divided into six subseries: A-F:
- W.I:A: The Early Working Years in England, 1896-1898, consists of letters of recommendation, work certificates, and examination records from Wilson's early years of working as a gardener in England;
- W.I:B: Harvard employment documents including certificates of employment;
- W.I:C: Personal legal documents including his marriage certificate, will and passports;
- W.I:D: Awards, certificates, honors, and primary school certificates (1883-1887), an honorary doctorate from Trinity College, and several medals presented to Ernest Henry Wilson;
- W.I:E: Photographs include formal portraits, family photographs, and pictures of Wilson with various friends and associates.
- W.I:F: Personal documents regarding friends and family members.
- Series W.II: First Expedition to China for Messrs. Veitch, 1899-1902.NOTE: Asiatic place names are Romanized according to Wilson's personal system and do not necessarily conform to either historic or current standards.The main purpose of this trip was to collect the elusive Dove Tree, Davidia involucrata which had first been discovered by the French missionary Père Armand David (1826-1900) in Sichuan Province near the Tibetan border. James Herbert Veitch's (1868-1907) directive to Wilson stated that, "The object of the journey is to collect a quantity of seeds of a plant (Davidia) ... This is the object—do not dissipate time, energy or money on anything else." Wilson traveled to Ichang via Boston, San Francisco, and Hong Kong to Yunnan, where he met fellow explorer Augustine Henry (1857-1930). Wilson used Ichang as his headquarters, and following Henry's advice, searched for the Dove Tree in Western Hupeh and Szechuan and along the Yangtze River. Eventually he found several fruiting trees reportedly sent 14,875 of seeds of Davidia involucrata to the Veitch nurseries.Material in this series includes the handwritten "agreement" between Wilson and Messrs. Veitch, a notebook kept by the Veitch firm on seeds received from Wilson between 1899 and 1905, and notations by Wilson on "Hosie's itinerary," published in Three years in western China; a narrative of three journeys in Ssŭ-ch'uan, Kuei-chow, and Yün-nan, written in 1887 by Sir Alexander Hosie (1853-1925). Also in this series is Wilson's plant collection notebook which also contains shipment lists, propagation data, and other lists. Collection numbers of seeds from this trip: 1-1310. Collection numbers of herbarium specimens: 1-2800. No dates are given and field localities are not in a logical sequence. (Howard) The correspondence from this expedition is available in Series W.VII. Travel documents, mainly Chinese passports, are in Series W.XI.
- Series W.III: Second Expedition to China for Messrs. Veitch, 1903-1905.The main goal for this expedition was to collect the rare alpine plant Meconopsis integrifolia, often called the Himalayan or yellow poppy. Wilson arrived in Shanghai in March 1903 and traveled north through Western Szechuan to the Sino-Tibetan border, where he found Meconopsis integrifolia growing at an altitude of 11,000 feet. This arduous expedition was first described by Wilson in a series entitled in, "Leaves from my Chinese notebook," published in The Gardeners' Chronicle between June 1905 and June 1906. James H. Veitch's hand-written instructions, and Wilson's final account with the Veitch firm is also in this series. There are several field diaries, written in pencil and often difficult to read, which contain dated entries and locations. Collection lists, field notes for seeds and herbarium specimens, a list of "Wilson plants received from Veitch" [at the Arnold Arboretum] 1907-1909, are also part of this series. For letters and travel documents, see Series W.VII. and W.IX. Collection numbers of seeds from this trip: 1400-1910. Herbarium specimens are numbered: 3000-5420.
- Series W.IV: Third Expedition to China—The First for The Arnold Arboretum, 1907-1909.In December 1906, Wilson signed an agreement to collect plants in China for the Arnold Arboretum. The main objective for this expedition was to collect seeds and herbarium specimens of as many woody plants as possible, but Wilson was also assigned to collect more broadly for private subscribers to the expedition. When Sargent instructed Wilson to document the expedition with photographs he set the precedent of asking all his future explorers to do so as well. Field cooperation was arranged with the United States Department of Agriculture, through David Fairchild, who had sent Frank Meyer to China in 1905 as an agricultural plant explorer for the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction. Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology sent Walter Reaves Zappey (1878-1914), a trained collector and museum preparator to accompany Wilson and collect skins and pelts.Wilson and Zappey landed at Shanghai on February 4, 1907, and met with Meyer later that month. They spent most of the first year in Western Hupeh with Ichang as a base. The second year, they travelled in a house-boat which they named "The Harvard" up the Yang-tze to Kiating, then overland, through the Province of Szechuan to the Tibetan border. They collected in the Min Valley, and the surrounding mountains using Kiating as a base. Zappey collected 3,135 birds, 370 mammal skins and various reptiles and fishes. Wilson returned to Boston in 1909, via Peking, Moscow, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Berlin and Paris. He also spent several months in London developing the 720 glass plates he had taken during the expedition.These activities are reflected in the diaries, collection notes, and accounts in this series. The four diaries from this expedition are dated and localities are given. They include some references to photographs taken and work with Zappey. The collection field notes refer to plants sent to the various sponsors. A special column indicates the location at the Arnold Arboretum where seeds were planted. The collection numbers have been given a new numerical sequence for the Arnold Arboretum: Seeds: 1-1474; Herbarium specimen: 1-3817, 4000, 4002, 4005. Photograph Collection: Z-Series: Z-1 - Z-720.
- Series W.V: Fourth Expedition to China—The Second for The Arnold Arboretum, 1910-1911.On February 26, 1910 Wilson signed a new agreement with Harvard to collect in China. He arrived in Ichang by the end of May. The main objective of this expedition was to collect cones and seeds of conifers in the central and southwestern parts of China. The conifers had been found in a non-fruiting condition during his previous trip. In September, while Wilson was traveling between Sungpan and Chengtu, the expedition was hit by a landslide. Wilson's leg was seriously injured and he had to spend several months at hospitals in Chengtu recovering. The accident forced an early return to Boston on March 11, 1911, much sooner than had been planned. Before the accident, Wilson had made arrangements to have bulbs of Lilium regale collected, prepared for shipment and sent to Boston.The two diaries in this series were kept between June 4 and September 3, 1910. The field notes were kept in the same ledgers as during the previous Arnold Arboretum expeditions. These ledgers can be found in Series W.IV. The letter of agreement, Wilson's accounts, and some of his medical bills are also here. Collection numbers of seeds from this trip: 4000-4462; Herbarium specimen numbers: 4006-4744. The collection of numbers 4463-4744 were probably made by assistants after Wilson's accident. (Howard) Photograph Collection: O-Series: O-1 - O-374.
- Series W.VI: The Fifth Expedition to Japan—February 1914-January 1915.Beginning in the spring of 1911, in addition to curating his collections and fulfilling a variety of duties as a staff member, Wilson began work with the Arboretum's taxonomist, Alfred Rehder, on the manuscript for Plantae Wilsonianae : an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 by E. H. Wilson which would be ultimately published between 1913-1917 in three volumes.By January 1914, it was time for a fifth expedition to the Far East, this time to Japan, accompanied by his wife and daughter. His objective for this trip was to study the native forests, cultivated plants, and Japanese horticultural practices. Special attention was directed to the Japanese flowering cherries and learning more about Kurume azaleas which he saw in a nursery in the Angyo district of Kawaguchi. Wilson also made important contacts with Japanese colleagues. February and March were spent in southern Japan; April through June, in central Japan. In July and August, the Wilsons visited Hokkaido, Hondo, and Saghalien, and returned to central and southern Japan in the fall. Because of the war situation, the Wilsons had to return to Boston in the beginning of 1915.This series contains two books of field notes, two books with notations on plants in alphabetical order, and an account book. Collection numbers: 6001-7888 (many duplicates). (Wilson never used the numbers 4744-6000.) Photograph Collection: X-Series: X-1 - X-619.
- Series W.VII: Wilson's Sixth Expedition to the Far East—Japan, Korea, Manchuria, Formosa, and Islands in the Japanese Sea, January 1917-March 1919.Wilson continued his work at the Arnold Arboretum until early 1917, when another expedition to the Far East was organized. From a scientific point of view, this is considered Wilson's most important expedition. During this trip, he successfully collected a selection of azaleas in the small town of Kurume on the southern Island of Kyushu. The "Kurume azaleas" had been originally developed by Motozo Sakamoto, a Japanese nurseryman. Wilson's collection of these azaleas came to be known as "The Wilson Fifty." In December 1918, Wilson returned to Boston.This series contains five collection notebooks, each with mixed diary and collection notes. There is also a group of loose-leaf notes with extensive notations from certain areas. Collection numbers: 8000-11268. Photograph Collection: N-Series: N-1 - N-703.
- Series W.VIII: Wilson's Visit to "Gardens of the World," October 1920-August 1922.In July 1920, Wilson left Boston for Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, India, Kenya, Rhodesia, and South Africa. He was to establish contacts with botanical gardens and to arrange the exchange of scientific literature. Wilson traveled via England and through the Suez Canal to Australia where he arrived in October. In April 1922, Wilson was back in England. The spring and summer were spent in Europe and in August, Wilson returned to the Arnold Arboretum.This series contains two diaries with collection notes mixed in from Australia and New Zealand, mainly from 1920. The series also has two diaries from 1921 and two small notebooks from England and France in 1922. Collection numbers (new series): 1-799. Plant collecting at this time had become hampered by new rulings by the Federal Horticultural Board of Washington, which prohibited import to the United States of plants from abroad. Photograph Collection: Y Series: Y-1 - Y-193.
- Series W.IX: Photograph Collections."E. H. 'Chinese' Wilson, the Arboretum's most famous collector, composed his plant portraits with exquisite appreciation of their cultural surroundings … These photographs go far beyond the simple records of specimens encountered on botanical travels to a distant land. They can also present a cultural narrative about the people who have inhabited those lands for many centuries and their intimate relationships with the plants that surround them. And, in the hands of an exceptional photographer such as Wilson, many of these images became remarkable works of visual quality …"From the introduction by Robert E. Cook, Director, Arnold Arboretum, to "The Nature of Things" an exhibit of Arboretum images held at the Photographic Resource Center, Boston University, 2000-2001.Wilson's images exist in many formats: glass plate negatives, black and white and hand-colored lantern slides, black and white prints mounted on boards or in bound albums, a small number of unmounted prints, 35mm negatives, contact prints, 35mm slides, and digital images on deposit at Harvard's digital repository. Each image has detailed documentation that includes either plant name, geographic location, habitat, tree height and dbh [diameter at breast height], altitude, and date or geographic location in the case of views. The vast majority of his photographs consist of 8½ x 6½ inch black and white prints mounted on 11¾ x 9½ inch acidic, black boards that are housed in vertical files. They are arranged alphabetically either by the Latin binomial, or by geographic location, and are interfiled within the larger Arboretum Photograph Archives in the library's reading room.A list of Wilson's images taken in the Arboretum is available in the accession records of the A Series (A-1- A-936). An incomplete listing (1923-1926) of his images taken elsewhere in North America (principally New England) are listed in the M Series (M-1 - M-397). These accession lists, along with those of his expeditions (Series O, Z, X and Y) are located in the archives file: X. AA Photographs: A-4. Records.In addition to the prints mounted on boards, a second set of prints from the two expeditions to China are arranged in chronological order by accession number in two sets albums: Series Z (1907-1909) consists of 7 volumes; Series O (1910-1911) consists of 3 volumes. An additional set of 619 prints from the Japan trip, Series X, are arranged alphabetically by genus in 6 bound volumes. Wilson's glass plate negatives and lantern slides are housed in vertical files, and arranged by negative number. Digital copies of all of Wilson's Eastern Asian images are on deposit at the Digital Repository Service (DRS) and can be accessed through VIA (http://harvard.edu.via/), Harvard's union catalog of visual resources. To capture the largest number of Wilson records in VIA, Search for Eastern Asian in Anywhere and Search for E. H. Wilson in Name and Limit repository to: Arnold Arboretum Horticulture Library (Jamaica Plain).As part of a 1985 IMLS Conservation Grant, all of Wilson's glass plates, the format for the majority of his images, were replicated on 35mm safety film with corresponding contact sheets. They are also available in slide format.
- Series W.X: Maps and Travel Handbooks.The majority of the maps in this series are the original ones used by Wilson in the field. However, the original maps from the expeditions to China are lacking.
- Series W.XI: Legal Documents for Expeditions, 1899-1910.The travel documents in this series are related to the China expeditions. Most are passports issued by British (and American) Consulate officials and countersigned by local Chinese officials. The text is usually in Chinese ink script on large size Chinese fiber paper. Many of the documents have added notations in English. Wilson is identified as a person collecting wild plants.
- Series W.XII: Manuscripts, 1903-1904.This series consists of handwritten manuscripts that appear to agree with the content of Wilson's series "Leaves from my Chinese Notebook" published in The Gardeners' Chronicle, v.37 (1905)): 337-338, 356-357, 382-384; v. 38 (1905): 4-5, 24, 65-66, 94-95, 124-125, 146-147, 174, 202-203, 245-246, 266-267, 277, 323-324, 355, 388-389, 420-422, 459; v.39 (1906): 11-13, 27-28, 60, 101, 138-139, 165-166, 179-180, 258-259, 293-294 331-332, 340-342, 402-403, 419-420.
- Series W.XIII: Unpublished Manuscript and Related Correspondence, 1928-present.This series contains a copy of the manuscript of the unpublished "Wilson plants in cultivation" on which Wilson was working at the time of his death. This series also includes a manuscript on rhododendrons that "might form a part of Wilson's unpublished manuscript" (Stephen A. Spongberg,August 5, 1983). There is correspondence between Wilson and twenty horticulturists in England and one in France in 1929 on results of Wilson's introductions. In addition there is correspondence in 1941 related to a possible publication of the unfinished manuscript, and correspondence between Robert E. Cook and Stephen A. Spongberg, Arnold Arboretum taxonomist 1970-1998, regarding Spongberg's working manuscript based on Wilson's unpublished manuscript.
- Series W.XIV: Correspondence, 1899-1930.The correspondence series is divided into six subseries: A-F:
- W.XIV:A: Several hundred letters written by Wilson to Charles Sprague Sargent and Alfred Rehder between 1906-1922;
- W.XIV:B: Letters written by members of the Veitch family and received by Wilson, 1899-1913;
- W.XIV:C: Copies of letters written by Wilson 1906-1910, 1922-1930 to various recipients;
- W.XIV:D: Wilson's letters to Harvard University during his months as "assistant director in charge" after Sargent's death in 1927;
- W.XIV:E: Letters received by Wilson. Of special interest are four letters from Frank Meyer, in China, 1907; all other letters are from the years 1916-1930.NOTE: Additional letters written to Wilson are kept in the general Arnold Arboretum archives letter file;
- W.XIV:F: Letters written by Wilson to his longtime friend, Harlan Page Kelsey, 1913-1930.
- Series W.XV: Published Material about Wilson (1902-Present).Composed mainly of articles, pamphlets, and newspaper clippings published from 1912 to date. The material describes Wilson's activities as an explorer, plant collector, lecturer and author and illustrates the successful role he played in providing public relations for the Arnold Arboretum. (Note: Folder 1 contains the article "Chinese Wilson—plant hunter" in the World's Work (November 1913), which includes a drawing from Wilson's "lost" diary from the first expedition to China). There is also a selection of Wilson's books, some autographed or inscribed by Wilson.
- Series W.XVI: Collected Works, Selected Published Articles, 1901-1953.The series is divided into four subseries: A-D:
- W.XVI:A: Articles written or compiled by Wilson;
- W.XVI:B: Articles written by Wilson and collected by Harlan Page Kelsey;
- W.XVI:C: Publishers' flyers on monographs written by Wilson;
- W.XVI:D: Other articles by Wilson;
- Series W.XVII: Correspondence and Other Unpublished Material Relating to Wilson, 1930-Present.This series is divided into six subseries: A-F:
- W.XVII:A: Correspondence related to the transfer of Wilson material from Kew/Chipping Campden to the Arnold Arboretum;
- W.XVII:B: Material from Wilson's nephew, Roy Briggs, about research for his book "Chinese" Wilson: a life of Ernest H. Wilson, 1876-1930, published in 1993;
- W.XVII:C: Wilson memorials;
- W.XVII:D: Plant lists and labels;
- W.XVII:E: Material relating to Wilson exhibits;
- W.XVII:F: Correspondence about Wilson, 1909-present.
- Series W.XVIII: Wilson's Personal Library.This series consists of 67 volumes arranged alphabetically by author.
For additional information about E.H. Wilson published by the Arnold Arboretum, see:Clausen, Kristen; Hu, Shiu-ying. "Mapping the Collecting Localities of E. H. Wilson in China."Arnoldia, 40:3 (1980).For an online exhibit of the Wilson Collection, please visit the Open Collections Program webpage at http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/expeditions/wilson_records.html.