© President and Fellows of Harvard College
Call No.: MS Hyde 1
Repository: Houghton Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University
Creator: Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784.
Title: Samuel Johnson letters,
Quantity: 1 collection (1.75 linear feet (6 boxes)
Language of materials: Collection materials are in English.
Abstract: Letters written by English lexicographer and poet Samuel Johnson to various correspondents.
Other Johnson letters are scattered through a wide variety of libraries and private collections in the United States and England; see the Hyde Edition for details. Other Johnson letters can be found at the Houghton Library, including twelve in the Charlotte Lennox Papers (MS Eng 1269); and eight in the Autograph File.
One other Johnson letter fragment was donated as part of the Hyde Collection: part of an autograph note to an unknown correspondent, probably written ca. 1784 Aug. This three-line fragment is pasted into the inside front cover of a copy of Johnson's Dictionary, 6th edition, 1785 (2003SJ-193). It was published in the Hyde Edition IV, 384. Johnson's complimentary close and signature dated Ashbourne, 1784 July 21, is pasted into the inside cover of Volume 2 of the same dictionary. This fragment, apparently from a different letter, is not cited in the Hyde Edition.
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) was one of the leading literary figures of eighteenth-century England. He is best remembered for compiling the first comprehensive dictionary of the English language, published in 1755. Prominent among his diverse other works, he also wrote the satirical History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia (1759), edited The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare (1765), and produced the important Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, to the Works of the English Poets (first collected in 1781). He wrote the bulk of the essays released in periodical form as The Rambler (1750-1752) and The Idler (1758-1760).A native of Lichfield, Johnson attended Oxford in 1728 and 1729, but left without receiving a degree. He married the widow Elizabeth Porter (1688-1752) in 1735; they had no children together. Johnson resided primarily in London from 1737 onward, although he continued to maintain a house in Lichfield. He received an honorary M.A. from Oxford in 1755, and honorary LL.D. degrees from Trinity College, Dublin in 1765 and from Oxford in 1775. He supported himself modestly from his literary endeavors until being granted an annual pension in 1762. He was memorialized in James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791), generally regarded as an early landmark of the biographical craft.
Almost all of these letters (including the fragments) were published in the five-volume set, The Letters of Samuel Johnson: The Hyde Edition, edited by Bruce Redford (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), which serves as the authority for all supplied dates in this inventory. The published letters are noted as Hyde Edition in the inventory, with the corresponding volume and page numbers. The material not in the Hyde Edition includes full letters: to Thomas Cadell dated 1778 Oct. 17, item (15); to Thomas Lawrence, 1780 Aug. 18, item (66); to Thomas Percy, 1769 Nov. 10, item (91); to Henry Thrale, 1775 May 6, item (111); and to Charles Burney, 1778 Jan. 29, item (142). Redford also worked from transcripts of eight letters without having the opportunity of seeing the originals, most of which were acquired by Lady Eccles after Redford had completed his editing. These include letters to: William Langley, 1783 May, item (62); Thomas Lawrence, 1783 Apr. 16, item (66); Hannah More, undated, item (78); John and Amelia Perkins, 1784 Jan. 11, item (92); Hester Lynch Piozzi, 1777 Mar. 27, 1777 Nov. 3, and 1782 Feb. 17, item (93); and an unidentified correspondent, 1780 Feb. 25, item (123). The two 1777 Piozzi letters contain substantial additional text. Finally, Redford also did not include six short fragments addressed to: William Adams, item (1); James Boswell, item (9); William Duncombe, item (31); Andrew Millar, item (76); Mary Welch Nollekins, item (83); and Hester Lynch Piozzi, item (93). Redford also did not include the three closing lines from a letter dated 1783 July 24 to Hester Maria Elphinstone, Viscountess Keith, item (61), which had been clipped from the letter. The missing fragment was added to the collection in 2005. Some letters include compositions by Johnson which have been cataloged in the Index of English Literary Manuscripts, Vol. III, Part 2 (London: Mansell, 1989), pp 121-178, Margaret M. Smith, ed. These are noted in the guide with their appropriate JoS number.
Organized into the following series:
- I. Letters, 1731-1784
- II. Transcripts, 1762-1784
- III. Reproductions, 1780-1784
- IV. Letters acquired since 2003, 1759-1784
This collection consists of 746 letters and fragments written by Johnson between 1731 and 1784, and manuscript transcripts and reproductions of other Johnson letters which are unavailable elsewhere. It is the largest single collection of Johnson's letters in existence, comprising nearly half of the known surviving letters. It includes 232 letters to Johnson's most regular correspondent, his friend Hester Lynch Thrale (later Hester Lynch Piozzi), from 1765 until Johnson ceased his correspondence with her in 1784.Other particularly noteworthy correspondents were actor David Garrick (1717-1779); the painters Frances Reynolds (1729-1807) and Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792); and novelist Samuel Richardson (1689-1761). Regular correspondents represented most heavily in the collection include Mrs. Thrale's daughter Hester (later Hester Maria Elphinstone, Viscountess Keith, 1764-1857); friend and protege Bennet Langton (1737-1801); stepdaughter Lucy Porter (1715-1786); and boyhood friend John Taylor (1711-1788).